Skip navigation to main content Text version | Accessibility help Friday 24 November 2017
Medway Council Logo - Takes you to the Council home page
Search CityArk
Home | About Medway archives | Search - Explorer Query Tool | Java Query Tool | Map Search | Text Only
You are here: Medway Council > CityArk > Home > Query > Results
Your query generated 63 results (Page 1 of 3)

Too many results?
Please try again using the explorer, java, graphical or text only query tools.


Result number 1 - Please quote Reference: 06a_DE_SERIES_1001_1200/DE1068 on request slip.

Path: Accessions/ 06a_DE_SERIES_1001_1200/ DE1068.html

Title deeds, probate records and personal estate papers of Peat family of Kensington, London and Tovil, Maidstone and Forrester family of Malmesbury, Wiltshire, deeds pertaining to properties under jurisdiction of manors of Barking, Essex and Kennington, Surrey; also deeds pertaining to advowson of Thorley, Hertfordshire, Isle of Wight, Slicketts Hill and Chalk Pit Lane, Chatham and Gillingham, parties and subjects Hooper, Earle, Dewe, Bryant, Budgen, Mannerings, Charlton, Rainger, Ward, Pillfold, Robinson, John Russell, Duke of Bedford, Townson and Storey.


Date: 1739-1913
Quantity: 1 bundle/41 items inc. wrappers
Result number 2 - Please quote Reference: 06_DE_SERIES_0751_1000/DE0798 on request slip.

Path: Accessions/ 06_DE_SERIES_0751_1000/ DE0798.html

Items of unknown provenance donated by Hertfordshire Archives and Local Studies, Directorate of Community Information, County Hall, Hertford Hertfordshire, comprising:

articles of agreement between Mary Brimson, widow, executrix of John Emmett, mariner late of HMS Vangard [cf. Vanguard ] but at Rochester deceased and Margaret Emmett, widow and relict of John Emmett, 9 June 1691 (1 item, paper);
renunciation of letters of administration for goods and chattels of Thomas Merryman formerly of the city of Rochester but dying near the Isle of Thanet, made by Anne Merryman, widow of same, 17 January 1682/1683 (1 item, paper);
citation to Anne Merryman widow and relict of Thomas Merryman formerly of Rochester who died in parts beyond the seas to appear before Rt. Hon. Sir Leoline Jenkins, knight, doctor of laws and judge of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury at Doctors Commons, St. Bennet's Parish, Paul's Wharf, London, and accept or refuse administration of goods of Thomas Merryman, signed by Samuel Wyseman [cf. Wiseman], 15 January 1682/1683 (1 item, paper);
citation to Elizabeth Aldridge widow and relict of John Aldridge of Rochester, deceased, to appear before Rt. Hon. Sir Leoline Jenkins, knight, doctor of laws and judge of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury at Doctors Commons, St. Bennet's Parish, Paul's Wharf, London to produce the will and probate inventory of John Aldridge, c.1680 x c.1690 (1 item, paper).

Date: c.1680 x c.1691
Quantity: 4 items, paper
Result number 3 - Please quote Reference: 06_DE_SERIES_0751_1000/DE0852 on request slip.

Path: Accessions/ 06_DE_SERIES_0751_1000/ DE0852.html

Records of Rogers, Stevens and Chance, (formerly C.E.T. Rogers, Son and Stevens), 10 New Road, Chatham, chartered surveyors, brewery agents and valuers of licensed property, comprising:correspondence with mortgage lenders and site plans pertaining to valuation of private houses in Medway Towns and surrounding area c.1965-c.1982 (2 boxes);statements of change of tenancy of public houses, off-licences and hotels mainly in the Medway Towns (Strood, Rochester, Chatham and Brompton/Gillingham) and Kent (including Maidstone, Canterbury, Tunbridge Wells, Tenterden, Folkestone, Dover, Isle of Thanet, Sheerness and and Queenborough), but with many also covering the out-county area chiefly Sussex (including Northiam, Robertsbridge, Hastings, St. Leonards-on-Sea and Brighton) and Essex (including Bishops Stortford, Burnham-on-Crouch, Southend and Clacton-on-Sea), with a small coverage of Bedfordshire, Oxfordshire (Dorchester-on-Thames), Wiltshire (Marten), Surrey (including Godalming), Berkshire (Reading), Hampshire, Hertfordshire, Suffolk, Devon (Bear Inn, Colyton), London, Middlesex, Cambridgeshire (Cambridge), Norfolk (Spread Eagle, Barton Bendish) and Switzerland (San Domenico, Castagnola), parties (a) Rogers, Stevens and Chance acting as agents of brewers and (b) tenants, many containing valuation inventories of stock in hand and fixtures and fittings room by room, war damage correspondence and papers, dilapidations surveys, property inspection reports, monopopy valuations (stating social class of clientele), photographs and biographies of tenants, facsimile architects' drawings and site plans and correspondence with brewers, insurers and tenants, c.1871 *-c.1970. Some files contain only the firm's management correspondence on matters including petrol rationing early 1950s and use of motor vehicles c.1940 (164 boxes);finding aids to statements of change as above and correspondence files (2 1/2 boxes);brewery rating files pertaining to breweries in Kent and Norfolk, breweries comprising:
Mackeson’s Brewery, High Street, Hythe 1933-1972 (1 file);
Courage (Eastern) Building Department garages, stores and premises at 1 Buckland Road, Maidstone 1964-1967;
Fremlins Pale Ale Brewery, Stores and Offices, Earl Street, Maidstone 1950-1972;
Truman Hanbury Buxton and Co. Ltd., Bottling Stores, Surrey Street, Norwich, Norfolk 1950-1968;
Phoenix Brewery, Bow Road, Wateringbury 1923-1974 (1 file);
Cooperage and Sawmills, garages and premises, Buckland Road, Maidstone (Courage Eastern Ltd.) 1949-1974 (1 file);
Whitbread Fremlins, 43-47 Earl Street, Maidstone 1980-1983 (1 file);
Truman Ltd. Bottling Stores, 139-141 King Street, Norwich, Norfolk 1974 (1 file);
Medway Brewery, St. Peter’s Street, Maidstone, Courage (Eastern) Ltd. 1923-1977 (1 file);
The Brewery, Court Street, Faversham, Shepherd Neame Ltd. 1965-1978 (1 file);
Malt House, Nettlestead, Whitbread Fremlins Ltd. 1928-1980 (1 file);
Smaller Malt House, Nettlestead, Frederick Leney and Sons Ltd. 1928-1957 (1 file);
Off Licence 31-33 Pudding Lane, Maidstone; offices, garage, stores, workshops and premises, Pudding Lane, Maidstone, Whitbread Fremlins Ltd. 1931-1984 (1 file);
Wine and Spirit Stores, Court Street, Faversham, Whitbread Fremlins Ltd. 1963-1984 (1 file);
Brewery, Court Street, Faversham, Whitbread Fremlins Ltd. 1957-1983 (1 file);
(2 boxes);public house inventory books c.1915-c.1933, labelled George Taylor FAI, 13 and 19 Watts Place, Chatham, auctioneer and valuer, (7 1/2 boxes);letter books 1910-1932 (20 boxes);rating assessment books 1973-1974 (3 volumes);address book c.1970 (1 volume);valuation books 1967-1982 (4 binders);account books 1973-1980 (2 volumes) [* Most statements of change files post-date 1940. The only file prior to 1940 is an inventory for The Chequers public house, Higham, 1871. The surviving sequence begins at number 4591 before which the finding aid references are redundant. NB the statements of change have been weeded. 98% of files pertaining to the Medway Towns have been retained. About 40% of out area files have been destroyed as not containing inventories or other documents of social, architectural or economic value.]File updated by Borough Archivist 10 January 2004.

Not  accessible without minimum 10 working days notice: UNCATALOGUED


Date: c.1871-1984
Quantity: Pending
Result number 4 - Please quote Reference: Ch_Me_01_Rochester_and_District_Natural_History_Society_1879_2002/CH_Me_01_070 on request slip.

Path: Charities_and_Poor_Relief_Organisations_1500_1987/ Ch_Me_01_Rochester_and_District_Natural_History_Society_1879_2002/ 09_PHOTOGRAPH_ALBUMS_1978_2001/ CH_Me_01_070.html

Rochester and District Natural History Society

 

Photograph albums

 

Photograph album containing colour prints of places visited on excursions including members and botanical specimens.  Including Virginia Water and River Thames at Runnymede, Surrey; Hatfield House, Hertfordshire; Temple Marshes Country Park, Gillingham Country Park and Murston, Kent.

 

[DE1048]


Date: 1993 - 1997
Quantity: 1 album/24 items
Result number 5 - Please quote Reference: DRc_Dean_and_Chapter_of_Rochester_Cathedral_1541_1994/DRc_Ele_182_41 on request slip.

Path: Ecclesiastical_Regular_and_Capitular_Foundations/ DRc_Dean_and_Chapter_of_Rochester_Cathedral_1541_1994/ BB02_Estate_Records_1346_1963/ 04_DRc_Ele_Leases_1346_to_1896/ DRc_Ele_182_41.html

Dean and Chapter of Rochester

Leases

Shorne rectory with the barn and barnyard, tithes, profits, commodities and emoluments but excepting the tithes, profits, commodities and emoluments arising out of land and premise in the entire borough of Tonge in Shorne.

Lessee: Arthur Cuthbert Marsh of Eastbury, Watford, Hertfordshire, esq. B

Term: 21 years

Rents: Rents: £20 plus 5 quarters good sweet merchantable wheat at Midsummer; 10s. a year to be distributed among the inhabitants of the parish; and green rushes for the church.

Conditions 1. Grace 21 days, 2a, 2b, 9 as above; 12 16, 20, 23, 25, 70

Conditions: 1. Grace 21 days; 2a, 2b, 9 2 quarters wheat 3 quarters barley to be paid to the vicar at Michaelmas and Lady Day each year at the rate of 6s.8d/quarter for wheat and 4s/quarter for barley*, 20s. to the Bishop of Rochester each year plus 12. on his visitation; and 7s.6d. to the Archdeacon of Rochester for proxies on his visitation.; 12, 16, 20.6 months; 23-25; 70

* In consideration of this the Dean and Chapter made a payment of 35s. every half year to the lessee.

File updated by Borough Archivist, Medway Council 19 January 2001.

Date: 29 June 1854
Quantity: 1 document
Result number 6 - Please quote Reference: DRc_Dean_and_Chapter_of_Rochester_Cathedral_1541_1994/DRc_Ele_182_42 on request slip.

Path: Ecclesiastical_Regular_and_Capitular_Foundations/ DRc_Dean_and_Chapter_of_Rochester_Cathedral_1541_1994/ BB02_Estate_Records_1346_1963/ 04_DRc_Ele_Leases_1346_to_1896/ DRc_Ele_182_42.html

Dean and Chapter of Rochester

Leases

Shorne rectory with the barn and barnyard, tithes, profits, commodities and emoluments but excepting the tithes, profits, commodities and emoluments arising out of land and premise in the entire borough of Tonge in Shorne.

Surrender of lease

Sir Henry Holland of Lower Brook Street, St. George, Hanover Square, Middlesex, Bt., doctor of physick and Anne Marsh of Eastbury, Watford, Hertfordshire, widow, to the Dean and Chapter of Rochester.

File updated by Borough Archivist, Medway Council 19 January 2001.

Date: 26 June 1854
Quantity: 1 document
Result number 7 - Please quote Reference: DRc_Dean_and_Chapter_of_Rochester_Cathedral_1541_1994/DRc_Ele_182_43 on request slip.

Path: Ecclesiastical_Regular_and_Capitular_Foundations/ DRc_Dean_and_Chapter_of_Rochester_Cathedral_1541_1994/ BB02_Estate_Records_1346_1963/ 04_DRc_Ele_Leases_1346_to_1896/ DRc_Ele_182_43.html

Dean and Chapter of Rochester

Leases

Shorne rectory with the barn and barnyard, tithes, profits, commodities and emoluments but excepting the tithes, profits, commodities and emoluments arising out of land and premise in the entire borough of Tonge in Shorne.

A, B

Lessee: Anne Marsh of Eastbury, Watford, Hertfordshire, widow, executrix of Arthur Cuthbert Marsh, late of Eastbury, Watford, Hertfordshire, esq., deceased.

Term 21 years

Rents Rents: £20 plus 5 quarters good sweet merchantable wheat at Midsummer; 10s. a year to be distributed among the inhabitants of the parish; and green rushes for the church.

Conditions: 1. Grace 21 days; 2a, 2b, 9 2 quarters wheat 3 quarters barley to be paid to the vicar at Michaelmas and Lady Day each year at the rate of 6s.8d/quarter for wheat and 4s/quarter for barley*, 20s. to the Bishop of Rochester each year plus 12. on his visitation; and 7s.6d. to the Archdeacon of Rochester for proxies on his visitation.; 12, 16, 20.6 months; 23-25; 70

* In consideration of this the Dean and Chapter made a payment of 35s. every half year to the lessee.

File updated by Borough Archivist, Medway Council 19 January 2001.


Date: 28 June 1854
Quantity: 2 documents
Result number 8 - Please quote Reference: DRc_Dean_and_Chapter_of_Rochester_Cathedral_1541_1994/DRc_Ele_182_45 on request slip.

Path: Ecclesiastical_Regular_and_Capitular_Foundations/ DRc_Dean_and_Chapter_of_Rochester_Cathedral_1541_1994/ BB02_Estate_Records_1346_1963/ 04_DRc_Ele_Leases_1346_to_1896/ DRc_Ele_182_45.html

Dean and Chapter of Rochester

Leases

Shorne rectory with the barn and barnyard, tithes, profits, commodities and emoluments but excepting the tithes, profits, commodities and emoluments arising out of land and premise in the entire borough of Tonge in Shorne.

Assignment of lease

Lessee: Anne Marsh Caldwell* of Eastbury, Watford, Hertfordshire, widow

Assignee: Sir Henry Holland, Bt.

* She assumed the additional name of Caldwell in pursuance of a provision in the will of her late brother James Stamford Caldwell, esq.

File updated by Borough Archivist, Medway Council 19 January 2001.

Date: 2 January 1855
Quantity: 1 document
Result number 9 - Please quote Reference: DRc_Dean_and_Chapter_of_Rochester_Cathedral_1541_1994/DRc_Ele_182_46 on request slip.

Path: Ecclesiastical_Regular_and_Capitular_Foundations/ DRc_Dean_and_Chapter_of_Rochester_Cathedral_1541_1994/ BB02_Estate_Records_1346_1963/ 04_DRc_Ele_Leases_1346_to_1896/ DRc_Ele_182_46.html

Dean and Chapter of Rochester

Leases

Shorne rectory with the barn and barnyard, tithes, profits, commodities and emoluments but excepting the tithes, profits, commodities and emoluments arising out of land and premise in the entire borough of Tonge in Shorne.

A, B

Lessee: Anne Marsh Caldwell of Eastbury, Watford, Hertfordshire, widow

Term 21 years

Rents: £20 plus 5 quarters good sweet merchantable wheat at Midsummer; 10s. a year to be distributed among the inhabitants of the parish; and green rushes for the church.

Conditions: 1. Grace 21 days; 2a, 2b, 9 2 quarters wheat 3 quarters barley to be paid to the vicar at Michaelmas and Lady Day each year at the rate of 6s.8d/quarter for wheat and 4s/quarter for barley*, 20s. to the Bishop of Rochester each year plus 12. on his visitation; and 7s.6d. to the Archdeacon of Rochester for proxies on his visitation.; 12, 16, 20.6 months; 23-25; 70

* In consideration of this the Dean and Chapter made a payment of 35s. every half year to the lessee.

File updated by Borough Archivist, Medway Council 19 January 2001.

Date: 28 June 1861
Quantity: 2 documents
Result number 10 - Please quote Reference: DRc_Dean_and_Chapter_of_Rochester_Cathedral_1541_1994/DRc_Emp_38 on request slip.

Path: Ecclesiastical_Regular_and_Capitular_Foundations/ DRc_Dean_and_Chapter_of_Rochester_Cathedral_1541_1994/ BB02_Estate_Records_1346_1963/ 20_DRc_Emp_Property_repairs_1710_to_1912/ DRc_Emp_38.html

Dean and Chapter of Rochester

Estate records

Repair and Maintenance

Property Repairs 1710-1912 (DRc/Emp 1-39)

The Vines Fence, Rochester

Elevations of fences adjacent to public road and footpath and plan of pathway or pavement to be erected or laid in the Vines. Drawn by John Chapple, architect and surveyor, St. Albans, Hertfordshire.

Scale ½ inch: 1 foot.

Date: Watermarked 1871
Quantity: 1 roll/sheet 30 1/2" x 13 1/2" (775mm x 340mm)
Result number 11 - Please quote Reference: DRc_Dean_and_Chapter_of_Rochester_Cathedral_1541_1994/DRc_FTb_022 on request slip.

Path: Ecclesiastical_Regular_and_Capitular_Foundations/ DRc_Dean_and_Chapter_of_Rochester_Cathedral_1541_1994/ BB03_Financial_Records_1541_1919/ 02_DRc_FT_Treasurer_1548_to_1913/ 01_DRc_FTb_Treasurers_books_1548_to_1913/ DRc_FTb_022.html

Dean and Chapter of Rochester

 

 

 Finance records: Treasurers' books (DRc/FTb )

Giving lists of names and signatures of recipients arranged under headings as per cathedral officers, canons, prebends, choristers, paupers [beadsmen?] and pupils of the Cathedral Grammar School.

 

Treasurer's book - Daniel Hill.

 

Includes 4d given to a poor man who came almost naked from Whitechapel, London, 29 January 1686

 

Includes 1s given to Afra Parsons with a certificate from Canterbury that she was going to be touched for the King's Evil [cf. scrofula], 18 March 1686

 

Includes 2s 6d given to a poor scholar that was robbed near St. Albans [Hertfordshire] in his travels to Dover, 21 April 1686

Date: 1685-1686
Quantity: 1 volume
Result number 12 - Please quote Reference: DRc_Dean_and_Chapter_of_Rochester_Cathedral_1541_1994/DRc_FTb_198 on request slip.

Path: Ecclesiastical_Regular_and_Capitular_Foundations/ DRc_Dean_and_Chapter_of_Rochester_Cathedral_1541_1994/ BB03_Financial_Records_1541_1919/ 02_DRc_FT_Treasurer_1548_to_1913/ 01_DRc_FTb_Treasurers_books_1548_to_1913/ DRc_FTb_198.html

Dean and Chapter of Rochester

Finance records: treasurer

Treasurers' books 1548-1913 (DRc/FTb 1-243)

Each book is as a general rule divided up as follows: salaries paid to the Dean, prebendaries, minor canons, lay readers, choirmaster, organist, choristers, King's scholars, officers, stewards, counsellor, bailiff, and other church officers; the royal subsidy and annuity; pensions to the clergy; episcopal fees (exenia); alms; reparations to the fabric of the cathedral; exhibitions for King's scholars; expenses at law: extraordinary expenses and highway repair; necessaries; wood for fuel; carriage; and other items.

Giving lists of names and signatures of recipients arranged under headings as per cathedral officers, canons, prebends, choristers, beadsmen and pupils of the Cathedral Grammar School.

Treasurer's book *

Includes under miscellaneous payments, 4s 8d paid the bishop's registrars, fee on registration of episcopal licence for marriages in the cathedral, 5 January 1867;

Includes under miscellaneous payments, £3 3s paid the bishop's secretary's fee on grant of episcopal licence for marriages in the cathedral, 24 January 1867;

Includes under miscellaneous payments, 9s paid Mr. E. Rivers, map of British Isles for choristers' use, 5 June 1867;

Includes under miscellaneous payments, £3 3s paid Superintendent Radley, Rochester Police, at consecration of bishop, 26 June 1867;

Includes under miscellaneous payments, £1 17s 4d paid London, Chatham and Dover Railway, carriage of chairs for cathedral, 26 June 1867;

Includes under miscellaneous payments, £1 11s 6d paid to Superintendent Everist [cf. Everest], Kent County Constabulary, attendance of county police at consecration of bishop in cathedral on 11 instant, 26 June 1867;

Includes under miscellaneous payments, £18 18s paid Messrs. Jones and Willis for 18 dozen chairs supplied for the cathedral on 21 instant, 29 June 1867;

Includes under miscellaneous payments, 5s paid to S. Austin, Hertfordshire Mercury, advertising consecration of bishop, 9 July 1867;

Includes expenses incurred on account of Minor Canon Row, the organist, verger and schoolmaster's houses and the porter's lodge [cf. Chertsey's Gate], Rochester (p.36);

Includes expenses incurred on account of repairs to the cathedral fabric (p.38);

Includes under alms, £50 contribution towards restoration and improvement of St. John's Church, Chatham, the Rev. Alexander Joseph, 2 January 1867;

Includes under alms, £20 contribution to fund of St. Margaret's [Rochester] for relief of distress in this inclement season, 22 January 1867.

English.

* George Furrell, deputy 1866-1869; no payment recorded to Dean and prebendaries 1866-1872.

Date: 1866-1867
Quantity: 1 volume/49pp. used
Result number 13 - Please quote Reference: DRc_Dean_and_Chapter_of_Rochester_Cathedral_1541_1994/DRc_FTb_202 on request slip.

Path: Ecclesiastical_Regular_and_Capitular_Foundations/ DRc_Dean_and_Chapter_of_Rochester_Cathedral_1541_1994/ BB03_Financial_Records_1541_1919/ 02_DRc_FT_Treasurer_1548_to_1913/ 01_DRc_FTb_Treasurers_books_1548_to_1913/ DRc_FTb_202.html

Dean and Chapter of Rochester

Finance records: treasurer

Treasurers' books 1548-1913 (DRc/FTb 1-243)

Each book is as a general rule divided up as follows: salaries paid to the Dean, prebendaries, minor canons, lay readers, choirmaster, organist, choristers, King's scholars, officers, stewards, counsellor, bailiff, and other church officers; the royal subsidy and annuity; pensions to the clergy; episcopal fees (exenia); alms; reparations to the fabric of the cathedral; exhibitions for King's scholars; expenses at law: extraordinary expenses and highway repair; necessaries; wood for fuel; carriage; and other items.

Giving lists of names and signatures of recipients arranged under headings as per cathedral officers, canons, prebends, choristers, beadsmen and pupils of the Cathedral Grammar School.

Treasurer's book

Includes under miscellaneous payments, £43 15s paid to Benjamin Payne, a bill for 500 church chairs at 1/9, 12 June 1871;

Includes under miscellaneous payments, £7 6s paid to Messrs. Furrell, coal merchants, 27 November 1871;

Includes under miscellaneous payments, £50 paid to Very Rev. R. Scott, Dean, for dilapidations in that part of the Deanery which lies within the old chapter house, 27 November 1871;

Includes under miscellaneous payments, £55 14s 2d paid to Mr. John Sampson, publisher (York) [Yorkshire], for anthem books, 27 November 1871;

Includes expenses incurred on account of Minor Canon Row, the organist, verger and schoolmaster's houses and the porter's lodge [cf. Chertsey's Gate], Rochester (p.34);

Includes expenses incurred on account of repairs to the cathedral fabric (p.36);

Includes under alms and donations, £200 given to St. Albans [Hertfordshire] reparation fund, July 1871;

Includes under alms and donations, £25 donation to Castle Garden Fund, A. Hollister, treasurer, 18 September 1871;

Includes under alms and donations, £100 donation to Rochester Diocesan Education Fund, R. Hanbury, treasurer, 18 September 1871.

English.


Date: 1870-1871
Quantity: 1 volume/47pp. used
Result number 14 - Please quote Reference: DRc_Rochester_Priory_and_other_Religious_Houses_1080_1541/01_Intro on request slip.

Path: Ecclesiastical_Regular_and_Capitular_Foundations/ DRc_Rochester_Priory_and_other_Religious_Houses_1080_1541/ 01_Intro.html

MEDWAY ARCHIVES AND LOCAL STUDIES CENTRE

DRc

RECORDS OF THE DEAN AND CHAPTER OF ROCHESTER c.1080-1964

Click here to view the full list of the Rochester Priory records or select the folder from the query tool by following the instructions given there.

These archives were deposited by the Dean and Chapter of Rochester in the Kent Archives Office [now Centre for Kentish Studies], County Hall, Maidstone, Kent in 1959, and were listed there by Miss Anne M. Oakley MA FSA between the years 1963-1970. The collection was transferred to Medway Archives Office on 27 April 1992 and the list prepared and edited for for CityArk Phase II by the City Archivist/Borough Archivist 1997-2001

Re-edited by Borough Archivist July 2000 (Priory introduction).

For a link to the Rochester Cathedral web site Click Here ......or here [two different sites appear to be in operation as at 3 July 2000]

Historical Introduction

The church of St. Andrew the Apostle, Rochester was founded by Ethelbert, King of Kent as a college for a small number of secular canons under Justus, Bishop of Rochester in AD 604. Very little is know about the history of this house. It never seems to have had much influence outside its own walls, and though it possessed considerable landed estates, seems to have been relatively small and poor. It also suffered at the hands of the Danes [cf. Denmark]. Bishops Justus, Romanus, Paulinus and Ithamar were all remarkable men, but after Bishop Putta's translation to Hereford [cf. Herefordshire] in AD 676, very little is heard of Rochester. Their bishop, Siweard is not mentioned as having been at the Battle of Hastings in Sussex with King Harold as were many of the Saxon bishops and abbots, and the house put up no opposition to King William I when he seized their lands and gave them to his lay brother Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, Normandy, France whom he had created Earl of Kent. The chroniclers say that the house was destitute and that when Siweard died in 1075 it was barely able to support the five canons on the establishment (1).

Four years after his conquest of England, King William I invited his friend Lanfranc, Prior of Caen, Normandy, France and a former monk of Bec in there to be his archbishop at Canterbury. Lanfranc's task was specific: to reorganise English monasticism on the pattern of Bec; to develop a strict cloistered monasticism but one of a kind that was not entirely cut off by physical barriers from the life of the rest of the church. He drew unsparingly on Bec for his ideas, his bishops and his monks. Four bishops of Rochester hailed from Bec, several priors and many monks. Among the bishops, by far the most important was Gundulf, his friend, pupil and chamberlain whom he brought over with him to England in 1070 (2).

(1) This account of the cathedral priory of St. Andrew the Apostle, Rochester is based on those in The Victoria County History of Kent II, pp. 121-125, E. Hasted, History of Kent II, pp. 22-25, F.F. Smith, History of Rochester pp. 273-335; W.H. St. John Hope The Architectural History of the Cathedral Church and Monastery of St Andrew at Rochester, Archaeologia Cantiana XXIII, pp. 194-328 and XXIV, pp 1-85; and H. Wharton, Anglia Sacra, I, pp. 329-394. Part of King Ethelbert's endowment included the land from the river Medway to the Eastgate of the City of Rochester on the south part and practically all the land on the south side of the High Street, all within the city walls. The priory property was extended on the same site in 1225 and again in 1344 making necessary the construction of new walls and ditches on both occasions. (See also DRc/T62, T280).

Siweard, Bishop of Rochester died in 1075 and to replace him Lanfranc brought over a monk from Bec, Arnost, as Bishop. He died within the year and at Lanfranc's instigation, King William I agreed to the appointment of Gundulf as bishop. This proved ultimately the turning point in the history of Rochester (3). King William showed no reluctance or lack of effort in assisting Lanfranc to recover the former properties of the church now that his relations with his lay brother had become strained and difficult and in 1076, therefore, Lanfranc successfully repossessed himself of a major part of the lands which had once belonged to St. Andrew's church at the great assembly held on Penenden Heath. Some of this property formed the principal re-endowment of the house in 1077 and was given by Lanfranc to Gundulf when he enthroned him as Bishop of Rochester in that year.

Edmund de Hadenham [cf. Haddenham, Buckinghamshire], the thirteenth century chronicler, says that Lanfranc made it a condition of his friend's establishment at Rochester that the canons should be replaced by monks, but as no other establishment was made until 1083, it would appear that Gundulf bided his time. No one knows now what really happened. There is a brief mention in the Textus Roffensis of one Aegelric, priest of Chatham and a former Canon of Rochester who made a gift to the new house to secure the honourable burial of his wife there, but not a word more.

In 1083 Lanfranc visited Rochester and himself instituted twenty two monks of the Benedictine order in the house, some from Bec (4), probably some from the two houses at Canterbury, Christchurch and St Augustine, and possibly some from Caen. He endowed the house with property making careful and distinct provision for the bishop and the monks. Some of the lands he gave them were his own, others he purchased, and some he had acquired in 1076. Gundulf also purchased and acquired a great deal of property for his house which rapidly found favour with the Norman kings. Together with Archbishop Lanfranc he began the rebuilding of the church and monastery buildings. In the rebuilding of his church, Gundulf followed the usual practice of starting his new building to the east of the existing church so that there would be no interruption in the services of the church. He also appears to have incorporated part of the City wall into his building as the tower known as Gundulf's tower was one of the watch towers (5). Substantial parts of his work remain today, particularly in the Crypt.

[(2) D. Knowles, The Monastic Order in England , 2nd ed. pp. 83-134
(3) There is an excellent translation of the Life of Gundulf by the nuns of St. Marys Abbey, West Malling 1968.
(4) Knowles op cit p.112

No distinction was made in the early years of the refoundation between the episcopal and prioral possessions. The reason for this was simply that there was no need for any such distinction. The bishop of Rochester was titular abbot of St Andrews and the prior was directly subject to him. At least until the first quarter of the twelfth century the Bishop actually lived in the house with the monks as one of the family (6). John of Seez was probably the first bishop to set up a separate establishment, but Bishop Gundulf himself made some division of the properties between himself and the monks before his death in 1108 (7). Until the thirteenth century, gifts were made to the bishop or to the bishop and the monks of St Andrew's Church, Rochester but very rarely to the prior although it is more than probable that the offer was in existence from the refoundation (8). During the thirteenth century benefactors addressed their charters to the prior by name and the monks of St Andrew's church, Rochester, or first to the prior and monks of that place. It was not [contd.]

(5) See DRc/emf77
(6) This was also true at Christchurch, Canterbury until Stephen Langton became archbishop. It was, in any case, the natural thing to do, and exactly what one would have expected of Gundulf who thought of himself primarily as a monk. Lanfranc himself explicitly equated the offers of bishop and abbot. Knowles op. cit. p.622.

(7) See DRc/T47 and DRc/T57/5, a charter of Gundulf confirmed by Theobald, Archbishop of Canterbury in 1145. It was not until about 1125 that the influence of the black monks ceased to predominate. The canonical organisation of chapters tended to separate the bishop from the monastery and to give the foreign to monastic life. Knowles op. cit, p.133.

(8) DRc/T47-59]

until about 1260 that the term prior and convent became at all common. The inspeximus of King Henry III is addressed to the prior and convent of Rochester and this was the first occasion on which a royal charter had been so addressed (9).

When Lanfranc established the house at Rochester under the ministry of Gundulf, he is said to have realised that difficulties would arise over communally held property and therefore made careful division between the bishop and the monks. At first sight, this might seem a good idea, but the greatest difficulty of all lay in the fact that most of Lanfranc's re-endowment was made up of properties which had belonged to the church before the conquest of 1066. Properties involved included the manor and churches of St. Margaret, Rochester, Stoke, Wouldham, Frindsbury, East Wickham, Halling, Trottiscliffe, Borstal, Snodland, Cuxton, Malling, Denton, Longfield, Darenth, Southfleet and Fawkham. They were given to the church by Saxon Kings and nobles, but they were entrusted to the bishop. In Lanfranc's time there was no difficulty, nor could he foresee any, for while the bishop was a monk and lived in harmony with his monks no difficulty would present itself. Gundulf may have foreseen difficulties. Before he died he made further provision for the monks. As well as considerable pensions, tithes and rents, he gave them the manors of Stoke, Wouldham, Frindsbury, Denton, Southfleet, Lambeth (Surrey) and Haddenham (Buckinghamshire) King Henry I confirmed all these and also his gifts of the churches of Wouldham, Dartford, Woolwich, Sutton at Hone, Wilmington, Chislehurst, Aylesford, St. Margaret, Rochester, St. Nicholas' altar in Rochester Cathedral, Rotherfield and Stourmouth; he added Boxley church and Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury added Norton church (10).

The house was wealthy, but when Ernulf of Bec died in 1124 it was the end of an era for the monks. King Henry I nominated John of Seez, Archdeacon of Canterbury to the vacant see and though they elected him as their bishop, the monks viewed him with suspicion. He was not a monk. During his short episcopate the prior became the effective head of the house. The bishop's duties changed and he became more a patron than a father, making occasional visits only and barely known to his monks.

[(9) DRc/T60
(10) DRc/T47-51]

He had his own household, separate from theirs and this separation of revenues and interests combined to make him and his successors a stranger to his monks and more often than not an opponent. The chronicler, Edmund de Hadenham [cf. Haddenham, Buckinghamshire] offers John of Seez no compliments. He says he made lavish gifts, began great things and did much good, but that it did not last (11). He took advantage of a great fire that ravaged the house in 1137, dispersed many of the monks to other houses, and stole from them the churches of Aylesford, Southfleet, Boxley, St. Margaret, Rochester and the altar of St. Nicholas in Rochester Cathedral, thus plunging the house into years of expensive litigation which ended only in 1144 when Pope Celistine decreed that the new bishop, Ascelin, should return them unconditionally to the monks to whom they rightfully belonged (12).

John's argument is obvious: The reason even more so. The revenues of the priory were far larger than those of the bishopric. On this occasion the monks were successful, but far more serious contentions broke out under Bishop Gilbert Glanville fifty years later which reverberated through the centuries.

Gilbert Glanville was Archdeacon of Lisieux in France. He was a great friend of Archbishop Baldwin of Canterbury and his successor there Archbishop Hubert Walter, and much in favour at court. He became Bishop of Rochester in 1184. His predecessor Waleran had proposed to seek papal permission to expel the monks from the cathedral, as he had a low opinion of the regular orders, but had died before he could implement the idea. Unfortunately for the monks, the plan was not uncountenanced by King Henry II who wished to cut the power of the regular orders, in so many ways exempt from the royal prerogative. Rochester, for instance, had the right to elect its own prior without royal interference, and had also enormous privileges within the City of Rochester. King Henry II therefore chose his friend Gilbert Glanville, together with Baldwin, Archbishop of Canterbury and Hugh Nonant, Bishop of Coventry to use Rochester as an experiment. They were to set up a college of secular canons who were not, in general, infected with principles dangerous to civil government, and who as friends of the national clergy, would form a powerful barrier against the encroachments of the roman pontiffs.

[(11) Wharton, op.cit., p.347
(12) DRc/L1]

Except at Coventry where force was used to set up a college of Vicars Choral, nothing came of the idea as the King's death put an end to all hopes of success, but disastrous failure though it was, it did nothing to ease relations between the bishop and his monks (13).

Gilbert Glanville remained in favour with the new king, Richard I and when he was captured in the Holy Land and later imprisoned in Germany, worked with a will to secure his release. His principal contribution was the establishment of the hospital of the New Work of St. Mary in Strood. This was a small house whose purpose was to pray for the restoration of Christianity in the Kingdom of Jerusalem and for the King's release from captivity, and to provide for the poor and travellers. It was a cause worthy of the monks' support, but without consulting them, the bishop appropriated two of their churches for the support of his new foundation, and further bribed their prior, Ralph de Ros, to give a piece of meadowland in Strood to the hospital in return for money to finish the stonework of the cathedral cloister and for a new pair of organs (14). Matters were made worse by the fact that the churches the bishop appropriated were Aylesford and St. Margaret, Rochester, only recently won back at great expense.

The monks complained. They petitioned the Pope to intervene and he did in fact do so, but to no purpose. The bishop forced the monks into an agreement to maintain the house as he had founded it together with the lands and churches he had given to it (15). The agreement remained more or less in force until 1239, then in 1256 the Pope declared that the churches should be returned to the monks. Gilbert was long since dead, buried in haste and deprived of the last rites, during the Interdict, but his successor refused to comply. The quarrel finally came to the test in the reign of Edward I when the monks were ambushed and beaten up by the monks at Strood while they were attempting to pass in procession through the hospital grounds (16). After this debate, the monks of Rochester gave up what was obviously an unequal struggle.

[(13) The History and Antiquities of Rochester and its Environs by John Denne, ed. by T. Fisher, 1817 pp. 112-115
(14) DRc/T572/1-15
(15) DRc/L3
(16) William Lambard, Perambulation of Kent , 1570 gives a spirited account of this incident, which, though he was violently anti-catholic, is most graphic. 1826 edition, pp. 328-331]

The Monks' quarrel with Gilbert Glanville stretched far beyond Strood Hospital to other problems which caused proportionate dissension: rights of presentation; the Bishop's xenium ; and the disposition of servants in the priory.

On the first problem, the Monks claimed rights of presentation to churches in their possession both within and outside the diocese of Rochester. In 1207 they possessed at least eleven within and seven outside the diocese, but they laid claim to others that belonged to the Bishop. On his part the Bishop made no claim to any. He merely stated that when John was Bishop he had never asked the Monks for authority. He had always presented and instituted incumbents to all vacant livings both inside and outside the diocese, but had secured to them their rightful pensions, which was all they were entitled to. Further Gilbert Glanville added that he proposed to do likewise, with the sole concession that those he instituted should do fealty to the Monks as well as himself (17). This was a meaningless concession. Although the Monks gave way on the Bishop's right of institution, they always denied that he had any right to present to priory livings inside the diocese. They did, however, reach agreement over presentations to livings outside the diocese of Rochester. The Bishop here claimed joint right of presentation with the Monks, and though they knew he had none, they allowed his claim; and as witness that they did so and kept their agreement at least in part, there is a document surviving among these archives showing the strictness with which it was adhered to in the cases of Norton, Boxley and Stourmouth in the diocese of Canterbury for over 150 years (18). The problem was not so much one of fees but of influence and authority. It emphasises the Bishop's ultimate authority over the priory and the Monks' refusal to accept it. Gilbert Glanville's interpretations of their charters were often wrong, but the Monks found that there was little they could do in defence of their rights.

[(17) DRc/L3
(18) DRc/L10]

The Disagreement over the Bishop's xenium is an interesting one. The income from the Bishop's estates was fairly small and the xenium was a recognised method of providing for hospitality at his table. The word itself signifies a gift made in token of hospitality. This was a particularly lavish one consisting of 16 suckling pigs, 30 geese, 300 hens, 1,000 lampreys, 1,000 eggs, four salmon and other items from each of the five principal priory manors of Frindsbury, Stoke, Wouldham, Denton and Southfleet, and further gifts of fish from Lambeth, Surrey and Haddenham, Buckinghamshire. It was Bishop Gundulf who had ordained in 1107 that the xenium should be given to the Bishop on St. Andrew's day (17 November) but with the important, and in this case, significant proviso that if the Bishop was away from Rochester on that day, it should be given to the poor (19). The Monks appear to have resented making the gift, and refused to bring it when the Bishop was away. They argued that it was an imposition and that it was contrary to the ordinance that the Bishop should have it if he were away. Gundulf had never imagined a time when the Bishop would not be present in his church at the patronal festival, and Gilbert Glanville argued in his defence that he was forced to travel and could not always arrange to be there. He, therefore, fiercely opposed the Monks and claimed the xenium as his right wherever he might be on that day (20). In the end the Monks were forced to surrender. This was a major victory for Bishop Gilbert and one of which he and his successors took full advantage. In 1329 the Monks accused Bishop Hamo de Hethe [cf. Hythe] of abusing the system. They claimed he ought by ancient custom to celebrate St. Andrew's day in the cathedral and in the hall adjoining and there receive a present of ten pounds from the prior and Chapter towards his expenses, but that each year he had received the present without performing the ceremony, had left the prior and Chapter to do it, and to pay for it as well (21). The Bishop's answer has not survived. Suffice to say that the xenium survived even the dissolution and was still being paid in the eighteenth century (22).

[(19) DRc/T47
(20) DRc/L3
(21) Registrum Hamonis Hethe Diocesis Roffensis A.D. 1319-1352 transcribed and edited by Charles Johnson, Oxford 1948, pp. 424-431 and Introduction.
(22) DRc/FTv34]

According to Edmund de Hadenham [cf. Haddenham, Buckinghamshire], Ascelin was the first Bishop of Rochester to interfere in the appointment of priory servants (23). When Bishop Gundulf had lived with the Monks there was one set of servants and officials to look after both the Bishop and the Monks, but after the fire of 1137 and the almost total destruction of the conventual buildings, the Bishop set up a separate household. The priory servants apparently joined him and the Monks appointed others. There were over twenty of these servants and officials, all essential to the smooth running of a Benedictine house and all equally indispensible. Their number included the master baker, the second baker, three other bakers, brewers, cooks, a steward, janitor, guestmaster, granger, infirmarer, tailors and launderers to name only a few. Each official's work was carefully laid down but more important than this, so also were his salary and perquisites (24). It was these perquisites, often free food and drink, which made these offices so popular. Many of the servants and officials were related to Monks in the priory. Nepotism was rife. It appears that Ascelin withdrew the priory servants for this reason but a visiting legate reproved him saying it was not his business to interfere. Ascelin relented and the legate attempted to improve matters by making the posts annual appointments rather than permanent ones, but to no purpose. The sons of master bakers still succeeded their fathers and one of them even found favour by marrying the cellarer's sister.

[(23) Wharton, op.cit., p.343
(24) Custumale Roffense ff.53-60.]

The legate Hinemar's suggestions did not solve the problem. The Monks were still complaining under Bishop Gilbert Glanville that he interfered too much in this sphere (25). Gilbert Glanville doubtless had many relatives he wished to provide for, but he cannot have had more than Bishop Hamo de Hethe who was one of the chief offenders on this score. When Simon de Meopham made his archiepiscopal visitation of the priory in 1329 the Monks made 25 complaints against their Bishop, four of which related to this problem. They complained that he appointed to twenty or more offices in the priory when he was entitled to only four or five; that he appointed his own kinsmen and others to priory offices who did their work by deputy and at half wages, too ill paid to be honest; that the officers and their deputies took no notice when reprimanded, and said that they like the Monks were irremovable; and specifically that he had appointed a brewer who was inefficient and of ill fame. Most of the charges against Hamo de Hethe [cf. Hythe] were dismissed but the Monks' claims were not unfounded on their first charge. The Bishop's family name was Noble and there are many appointments of persons of this name in his register (26).

[(25) DRc/L3
(26) Registrum Hamonis p.425 and Introduction]

Apart from their endless conflict with the Bishops in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, there were three other problems of conflict which affected the priory, all of them outside the walls: the position of the priory in relation to the Crown and the Castle; relations with the Citizens of Rochester; and relations with the archdiocese of Canterbury.

The first stone keep is said to have been built at Rochester for King William II by Bishop Gundulf for the then enormous sum of sixty pounds, in return for a gift of land in Haddenham, Buckinghamshire. The priory buildings lay in the shadow of the castle and suffered somewhat in the wars in which it featured. Kings did not, however, neglect the priory. Some visited it, and there is a series of charters of privileges to prove their interest and concern. Many charters repeat the fact that William Rufus was eternally grateful to the monks and their Bishop for supporting him when his uncle Odo, Bishop of Bayeux rebelled against him and besieged Rochester and its castle. The monks lost a good deal in the battle of 1088. Much of their house was destroyed but the Manor of Haddenham rectory, Buckinghamshire proved a lucrative present and, moreover, gave them a link with the past. It had belonged to the Countess Goda, sister of King Edward the Confessor, a fact which several charters also repeat (27)

. There were many skirmishes involving the castle over the years but no further sieges until 1216 when the priory was pillaged by King John and his followers. But the most spectacular siege and the one which the monks turned most to their advantage was that of 1264. In that year, says Rishanger, the Chronicler, Simon de Montfort and the rebel barons brought great siege engines and fire ships to Rochester and prosecuted the siege with great violence. Some of the priory buildings were very badly damaged and Simon and his soldiers broke in a carried off the priory monuments. The story is told on the back of one small deed (28). It tells how the charter and many others were stolen from the prior's chapel where they were kept and carried off to Winchester, and how John de Renham [Rainham], the prior got them back from the robbers but with the seals all broken and many of the charters torn and damaged. He was appalled at the danger in which this might place his house, and at great labour and personal expense persuaded King Henry III to reconfirm all the damaged charters by a new one (29). This the King did. The charter embodies most of the charters granted to the priory since the conquest by Kings, Archbishops, Bishops and other persons. And there is no doubt that this is in fact the charter concerned because, its content apart, there is attached to the seal strings another cord woven into it, to which is attached a small fragment of very heavily cross-stitched parchment, all that remains of the earlier charters.

A great many of the charters in the possession of the priory were damaged in this incident. Therefore to supply the deficiencies not remedied by the new Royal Charter, and also to circumvent some of the problems of the division of property between themselves and their Bishop, the monks resorted to forgery. This was not so much a crime as it is now. Rather, it was a necessity. Once forged documents had been used to prove title they acquired the force of the genuine article. It is of course unnecessary to remark that documents were conveniently lost and suppressed if their contents proved a nuisance.

[(27) DRc/T48, T60 (1), T65 (1)
(28) DRc/T53 and F.F. Smith, History of Rochester p.17
(29) DRc/T60]

There are at least two forged charters among these archives, both charters of Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, life long friend of Bishop Gundulf and a great benefactor to Rochester. The first charter refers to Northfleet Church which Anselm gave to the monks. The monks had the presentation but Hubert Walter and successive Archbishops attempted to wrest it from them. Probably in 1264 (or possibly before) the seal was lost from the document and to give it more force a new seal has been made from a cast. It is quite easy to spot. Firstly it has been attached upside down, and secondly there is a shallow depression in the middle of the figure of the Archbishop caused by an airbubble (30). This document is genuine enough. The second is not. It relates to the great quarrels with the Bishops over property. It has no seal and purports to be a charter of Anselm making over to the priory many churches and manors most of which belonged to the Bishop of Rochester (31). The handwriting very closely resembles that of the new charter of 1265 (32). It may even have been written by the same scribe. It has, however, one fault. The charter is dated 1101 by which year four at least of the twelve witnesses were dead and had been dead for several years before Anselm became Archbishop of Canterbury. There are five Bishops included among the witnesses: Maurice of London, Osmund of Salisbury (Wiltshire), Walkelin of Rochester, Stigand of Chichester (Sussex)and Herbert of Thetford (Norfolk). Only Maurice was alive in 1101. Herbert died in 1085, Stigand in 1087, Walkelin in 1098 and Osmund in 1099. Anselm became Archbishop in 1093.

[(30) DRc/T49
(31) DRc/T48
(32) DRc/T60]

There was constant disagreement between the monks and the people of the City of Rochester. The people had no parish church of their own and worshipped at the alter of St. Nicholas which stood before the rood screen in the nave of the Cathedral Church (33). The monks appear to have disliked this system since it brought them into close contact with the populace from whom they wished to remain apart; it disturbed their peace and meant that their church was not their own. Admittedly it was the common custom for the local people to worship in the nave of a monastic church and is the reason why many have survived as parish churches, but it was a sore bone of contention at Rochester. The Benedictine order had moved away from Gundulf's ideal of a monastic church not entirely cut off by physical barriers from the life of the rest of the church. They shut the doors at night and refused the sacrament to the sick; they denied services; and in 1327 they locked the doors of the nave and took away the key. The Bishop forced the monks to come to an agreement with the citizens and on 14 June 1327 it was accordingly agreed that the monks should build an oratory for the citizens in the corner of the nave near the north door with a door and window on the outside of the church for the sacrament for the sick during the night, to which the people should have free entry and exit. They were also guaranteed all the usual daily services (34). The Bishop was sympathetic to their cause and successive Bishops of Rochester tried hard to have a church built for the citizens, but it was not until almost a hundred years after this agreement that this became a reality and St. Nicholas' Church was built beside the Cathedral (35).

[(33) DRc/Emf 77
(34) DRc/L7
(35) Rochester Episcopal Register III, DRc/T60/ff.16v.-18v.

Relations with Canterbury were equally bad. Lanfranc's refoundation at Rochester was modelled on Canterbury. He appointed the first Bishop of Rochester, and the see was thereafter recognised as being in the free gift of the Archbishop of Canterbury. It was thus peculiarly dependent on Canterbury, and as a mark of this dependence, it was customary on the death of their Bishop for the monks of Rochester to take the deceased bishop's pastoral staff to Canterbury where it was laid on the alter in Christchurch Priory, and from where the newly elected Bishop took it after his consecration. Not all the Bishops of Rochester were consecrated at Canterbury. Arnost was consecrated at St. Paul's in London but his immediate successors Gundulf, Ralph and Ernulf at Canterbury. Ascelin also may have been; his successor Walter, brother of Archbishop Theobald, certainly was. It appears that the monks of Rochester objected not to the act of consecration by the Archbishop, or indeed that it took place at Canterbury, but to the claims of the prior of Christchurch that he represented the Church of Canterbury. This was a strange argument for the monks to put forward. They persistently and continually opposed their own diocesan and ought by right to have supported the claim of the prior of Christchurch.

Rivalry between the two houses grew, and in order to avoid the humiliating ceremony after the death of Bishop Waleran in 1183, the monks buried the Bishop's pastoral staff with him in the grave. The monks of Christchurch protested. The rights of the mother church, they declared, must be maintained at all costs and the episcopal staff delivered to the prior. Negotiations were begun. They dragged on for years and years, but for the moment a compromise was reached. The monks of Rochester agreed to deliver the staff, not to the prior but instead to the Archbishop who would deliver it for them. Gilbert Glanville was consecrated by Archbishop Baldwin in 1184 at Canterbury, and as usual in the absence of the Archbishop, took over the administration of his see while he was in the Holy Land. Benedict of Sawston was consecrated at Oxford - a belated attempt to escape from the overlordship of Canterbury; and later Lawrence of St. Martin, one of the King's clerks who became Bishop of Rochester in 1251 instituted litigation to try and secure some measure of independence for Rochester. This he did in the face of Royal disapproval, for both King Henry III and his Queen favoured the primate, and if the negotiations did not have the required results as far as independence was concerned, at least they improved relations between the Bishop and his monks (36).

[(36) DRc/L2, see Wharton, op.cit., pp.342-351; C.E. Woodruff and W. Danks, Memorials of Canterbury Cathedral p.104. Hasted, op.cit, 2nd ed.,IV, p.124 says the Archbishop did not interfere after 1238.]

It is exceedingly difficult to follow the trend of numbers of monks in the priory as the information available is somewhat inadequate. Archbishop Lanfranc introduced twenty-two monks into the house whom he instituted in 1083. When Bishop Gundulf died in March 1108 there were, according to Edmund de Hadenhem [cf. Haddenham] sixty monks some of the best read and the best singers in the Country (37). He also claims that numbers fell off after Gundulf's death but this may be accounted for by the fact that in accordance with the system of Bec, monks from well established houses were continually being sent out to help found and replenished other houses. It is known that monks went out from Rochester to the house of St. John at Colchester (Essex) founded by Eudo Dapifer in 1119/1120 (38) and to Christchurch, Canterbury in 1207 (39). There were apparently only 35 monks at Rochester in 1317; only 30 voted at the election of John de Sheppey as prior in 1333 (40) and these were doubtless drastically reduced by the pestilence which raged in Rochester between 1349-1352 (41). There are only 190 instances in the Rochester episcopal registers of monks entering the priory there for the period between 1320-1537 but this presupposes that all the monks in the house went through the various orders of the priesthood there. Obviously this was not the case and the registers of other bishoprics should be searched to determine an entry figure if this is possible. From the list compiled it would appear that there were far more candidates entering the priory between 1460-1537 than between 1320-1460. Twenty-three monks voted at the election of Lawrence Dan or Mereworth as prior in 1532 (42) and he and nineteen monks took the oath of supremacy on 10th June 1534. Only twelve monks received pensions in May 1541 but this number did not include those provided for under the secular establishment (43). From the figures given here, it would appear that there were normally about 30 monks at Rochester for most of the period of the existence of the priory.

[(37) Wharton, op.cit, p.337
(38) Archaeologia Cantiana XXIII, p.224
(39) Knowles, op.cit, p.365. There is also a case recorded in the Priors' Book concerning William Lecestre who was released from his oath of obedience to the prior of Rochester so that he could go to St. Giles Cornwall in the diocese of Coventry (Warwickshire) and Lichfield (Staffordshire) where Hugh Lempster was prior. This was in 1480. No reason is given for the transfer. DRc/Elb1A f.6
(40) Rochester Episcopal Register I, f.157. This was a disputed election: 22 monks led by the late prior John de Speldhurst voted for John de Sheppey, 5 led by Richard Bledlawe, the cellarer and his subcellarer Peter de Lambourne, for Willam de Reyersshe [Ryarsh] the sacrist; and 3 young monks for Robert de Suthflete [Southfleet].
(41) DRc/F1A
(42) Rochester Episcopal Register IV, f.73
(43) Calender of Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic. Henry VIII, Vol.XIV, 1540-1541, p.356 no.745, f.30 (November) and p.718 (May)]
When a man became a monk in a religious house, he discarded his own surname after his profession and was known instead by this Christian name and that of the place or parish from whence he came. For this reason it is a simple matter to determine the area from which monks came to Rochester priory. Most of them were local men from Rochester and its neighbouring parishes, some came from Canterbury, Folkestone, Dover, Hythe and Dartford; but as can be seen from the list compiled of the monks passing through the various orders of the priesthood, at lease nine came from London, several from Norfolk, three from Oxford, two from St. Albans (Hertfordshire) one from Ossory in Ireland, one from Winchester (Hampshire) and one from Mayfield in Sussex. The list has been compiled almost exclusively from the Rochester Episcopal registers.

In the early years the priors were probably Frenchmen: Ernulf came from Bec and Ralph from Caen, but as Rochester had the privilege of electing its priors without Royal interference, the tradition of electing a man from within the house itself developed very rapidly, and by the third quarter of the twelfth century this was probably standard practice. There was one exception to this rule. William Fresell who was elected in 1509 had previously been prior of Binham in Norfolk (44). After the migration of Alfred to Abingdon (Berkshire) between 1185-1189 none of the priors left to go to other houses. If they resigned their office, they remained in the house until their death. There are, of course, several exceptions: William de Hoo [St. Werburgh] who retired to Woburn in Bedfordshire; and those priors who resigned on their election to the bishopric, Thomas de Wouldham, Hamo de Hethe [Hythe] and John de Sheppey (45)

[(44) Rochester Episcopal Register IV, f.53. He took the following oath: In dei nomine Amen. Ego Willelmus Fressell Monachus expresse professus ordinis sancti Benedicti prior monasterii ecclesie vestre cathedralis sancti Andree Roffensis per provisionem et nominacionem vestras iuxta antiquas ordinaciones ecclesie vestre predicte prefectus sive nominatus promitto ad sancta dei evangelia vobis et successoribus vestris canonice intrandum et ministrandum vestris canonicam obedienciam Reverenciam et honorem necnon observanciam antiquarum ordinacium prefate ecclesie vestre cathedralis sicut me deus adiumet et sancta dei evangelia.

(45) Wharton, op.cit Successio Priorum, pp.392-399]

File updated by Borough Archivist, Medway Council 9 August 2001.
Date: n/a
Quantity: n/a


Result number 15 - Please quote Reference: DRc_Rochester_Priory_and_other_Religious_Houses_1080_1541/02_Intro on request slip.

Path: Ecclesiastical_Regular_and_Capitular_Foundations/ DRc_Rochester_Priory_and_other_Religious_Houses_1080_1541/ 02_Intro.html

THE CATHEDRAL PRIORY OF ST. ANDREW THE APOSTLE, ROCHESTER

Click here to view the full list of the Rochester Priory records or select the folder from the query tool by following the instructions given there.

List of priors of St. Andrew, Rochester

Ordwin occurs 1089; deposed (Wharton, Anglia Sacra p.392
Ernulf (46)occurs 1093-1096 ( Textus Roffensis DRc/R1/ f.179; DRc/T49); resigned 1096
Ralph (47)succeeded 1096 (Wharton, op. cit p.392); resigned 1107
Ordwin re-elected 1107 ( Textus Roffensis DRc/R1/f.198; DRc/T47)
Letard c.1115-1125 (DRc/T310/1); occurs 1144
Brian c.1142-1148 ( Registrum Temporalium q.12 f.5); occurs 1145 (DRc/T57(5)), 1146
Reginald occurs 1154
Ernulf c.1148-1182 (DRc/L5/3)
William de Borstalle [i.e. Borstal] (48)
Silvester (49)occurs 1177 (DRc/L17), 1178
Richard (50)resigned 1182
Alfred (51) Osbern de Scapeya [i.e. Sheppey] (52) Ralph de Ros (53) occurs 1199; (see DRc/T572/14)

[(46) Monk of Bec [France]. Prior of Canterbury 1096; Abbot of Peterborough (Northamptonshire) 1107; Bishop of Rochester 1115-1125
(47) Monk of Caen, Normandy, France. Came to England with Lanfranc. Abbot of Battle, Sussex 1107. See DRc/T47
(48) Cellarer (Wharton, op. cit. p.393)
(49) Cellarer (ibid)
(50) Abbot of Burton, died 19 April 1188 ( ibid )
(51) Abbot of Abingdon (Berkshire) between 1185-1189 (ibid)
(52) Sacrist ( ibid )
(53) Sacrist ( ibid )]

Elias occurs 1214 (DRc/T193/1)
William occurs 1222
Richard de Derente [i.e. Darenth] elected 1225; occurs 1228 (Wharton, op.cit. p.393), 1230 (DRc/T354/4), 1236, 1238 (Wharton, op.cit. p.393)
William de Hoo [i.e. St. Werburgh or Hundred] (54)elected 1239; occurs 1241 (DRc/L12)
Alexander de Glanville elected 1242; died suddenly 1252 Wharton op.cit. 393
Simon de Clyve [Cliffe] (55)
John de Renham [Rainham] (56) elected 1262; deposed 1283
Thomas de Wouldham (57) elected 1283; resigned 1291
John de Renham [Rainham] re-elected 1292; died 1294
Thomas de Shelford [Shalford] succeeded 1294; resigned 1301
John de Greenstreet elected 1301; resigned 1314
Hamo de Hethe [Hythe] (58) elected 1314; resigned 1319
John de Westerham appointed 1320; died 1321
John de Speldhurst (59) elected 1321; resigned 1333
John de Sheppey (60) elected 1333; resigned 1351 (Rochester Episcopal Register I, f. 157)

[(54) Sacrist. Refused to assent to the sale of Chattenden Wood, Frindsbury; resigned and retired to Woburn Abbey, Bedfordshire where he died (Wharton, op.cit. p.393)
(55) Sacrist. Resigned through ill health ( ibid )
(56) Said to have manipulated the election of John Bradfield as Bishop of Rochester in 1278. Accused of embezzlement and simony. He died on 7 January 1293/1294 ( ibid p.394)
(57) Bishop of Rochester 1292-1317
(58) Bishop of Rochester 1319-1352
(59) Cellarer
(60) Bishop of Rochester 1353-1360. Treasurer of England 1356-1360]

Robert de Suthflete [i.e. Southfleet] (61) succeeded 1352; died 1361
John de Hertlepe [Hartlip] (62) elected 1361; resigned 1380
John Sheppey (63) elected 1380; died 1419
William Tonebreg [Tonbridge] (64) elected 1419; died 1444/1445 (Rochester Episcopal Register III, f.203)
John Clyve [Cliffe] (65) elected 1445 ( ibid ); died 1460 ( ibid. f.233 verso)
Richard Peckham (66) elected 1460 ( ibid ); occurs 1463 (DRc/T336), 1467
William Wood (67) occurs 1468, 1470 (DRc/T301), 1472 (DRc/T288), 1475 (DRc/T281)
Thomas Bourne (68) occurs 1478 (DRc/Elb/1A/f.4), 1479, 1480, 1482, ( ibid f.10), 1486, 1488 (DRc/T104/1), 1489, 1492 (DRc/Elb/1A/f.16); resigned 1494 (Rochester Episcopal Register IV f.7)
William Bishop elected 1494 ( ibid ); resigned 1509 ( ibid. , f.53)
William Fresell (69) elected 1509 ( ibid ); died 1532 ( ibid., f.173)

[(61) Subdeacon 21 September 1325 (Rochester Episcopal Register I, f.69 verso); Deacon 26 January 1325/1326 ( ibid., f.71); priest 2 April 1327 ( ibid., f.76); resigned Office of chamberlain 17 September 1326 ( ibid., f.118); voted for John de Sheppey as prior 19 August 1333 ( ibid., f. 157); Warden of Felixstowe (Suffolk)
(62) Deacon 14 June 1348 ( ibid., f.237 verso); Warden of Felixstowe (Suffolk)
(63) Subdeacon 30 May 1364 ( ibid., f.327 verso); priest 19 September 1367 ( ibid., f.330 verso)
(64) Acolyte 24 September 1396 ( ibid. II., f.146 verso); Subdeacon 21 December 1398 ( ibid. f.196); priest 18 December 1400 ( ibid., f.156 verso)
(65) Subdeacon 23 September 1402 ( ibid., f.1810 verso); deacon 22 September 1403 ( ibid. III., f.37 verso) priest 29 March 1404 ( ibid. II, f.186 verso); cellarer 25 May 1425 ( ibid. III., f.47 verso)
(66) Professed c.7 September 1446 ( ibid. , f.207 verso); acolyte and subdeacon 17 December 1446 ( ibid. , f.209); priest 19 December 1450 ( ibid. f.220 verso)
(67) Subprior 10 September 1461 ( ibid. , f.234 verso)
(68) Acolyte 14 April 1458 ( ibid., f.231); subdeacon Easter Saturday 1460 ( ibid., f.233); deacon 19 September 1461 ( ibid., f.235 verso); priest 19 September 1461 ( ibid., f.236 verso)
(69) Prior of Binham, Norfolk. Professed at St. Albans (Hertfordshire) ( ibid., f.53). Probably the first non-local prior since the late twelfth century.]

Laurence Mereworth (70) elected 1532 ( ibid. ); resigned 1538
Walter Boxley (71) occurs 1538 (DRc/T164), 1539 (DRc/T282, DRc/335/1, 1540 (DRc/T335/4).

[(70) Deacon 8 March 1504/1505 ( ibid., f.41); resigned office of cellarer 2 December 1514 ( ibid.,f.72 verso); sacrist 2 December 1514 ( ibid., f.72 verso); resigned 20 November 1518 ( ibid., f.77 verso); cellarer 12 November 1518 ( ibid. ); removed and replaced 22 October 1522 ( ibid., f.108 verso); resigned 5 October 1526 ( ibid., f.134 verso); subprior 5 October 1526 ( ibid.); resigned 11 November 1532 ( ibid., f.174). Also known as Laurence Dann

(71) Professed 26 November 1514 ( ibid. , f.72); deacon 20 December 1522 ( ibid. , f.109); present at the election of Laurence Mereworth 1532 ( ibid. , f.173). Also known as Walter Phillips under which name he was appointed as the first Dean of Rochester.]


Date: n/a
Quantity: n/a


Result number 16 - Please quote Reference: DRc_Rochester_Priory_and_other_Religious_Houses_1080_1541/03_Intro on request slip.

Path: Ecclesiastical_Regular_and_Capitular_Foundations/ DRc_Rochester_Priory_and_other_Religious_Houses_1080_1541/ 03_Intro.html

Archives of the Dean and Chapter of Rochester

Rochester Priory and other Religious Houses

Click here to view the full list of the Rochester Priory records or select the folder from the query tool by following the instructions given there.

Some Monks of Rochester

The Bishop of Rochester appears to have had the privilege of ordaining the majority of the clergy both regular and secular, in the various orders of the preisthood throughout Kent and in parts of London and Southern England, and also of professing nuns. Ordinations usually took place on the bishop's manors of Bromley, Halling or Trottiscliffe, or at Rochester or London and the ordinands were presented by their own prior or some person deputed by him in the case of the monks, and by other clergy in the case of the secular clergy. Monks and nuns were usually professed in their own particular religious house: the monks by their prior on receipt of letters dimissory from the bishop (72); and the nuns by the bishop in the presence of their abbess (73). Ordinands to the orders of acolyte, sub-deacon, deacon and priest came from all the religious orders, including the orders of friars, and seem to have been present in person. This would have necessitated travelling long distances as men came from Norfolk, Suffolk, Sussex and London as well as from all parts of Kent.

[(72) Rochester Episcopal Register IV, f.108 [CKS/KCC/UK]
(73) Ibid, ff. 55v., 108 [CKS/KCC/UK] ]

This list of some of the monks of Rochester has been compliled to give some idea of the wide area from which the monks came and some idea of their careers while in the house. The information is taken almost entirely from the Rochester Episcopal Registers 1319-1540, and though it does not give much indication of the number of monks in the house at any one time one can get a rough idea of the numbers of monks entering the house at particular times. Ordinations took place at regular intervals throughout the year but inevitably there are gaps and the list is obviously incomplete. The records of the elections of John de Sheppey as prior in 1333 and Lawrence Mereworth as prior in 1532 are the only ones which give any indication as to numbers of monks in the house (74).

[(74) Ibid I, f.157 and Ibid IV, f.73 [CKS/KCC/UK]]

William, son of Ernulf de c.1150 (DRc/TI91/1,DRc/T191/2) Strodes [Strood]
Nicholas Cellarer, c.1200 (DRc/T105/1)
John 1217 (DRc/BZ1)
Adam Almoner, c.1250 (DRc/T215)
Thomas de Mepeham [cf. Meopham] Almoner, c.1250 (DRc/T205, DRc/T208)
John de Speldhurst Late prior, voted for John de Sheppey as prior 19 August 1333 (Rochester Episcopal Register I, f.15) [CKS/KCC/UK]
Silvester Sub-prior; voted for John de Shepey as prior 19 August 1333 ( ibid )
Robert de Gelham Almoner; voted for John de Sheppey as prior 19 August 1333 ( ibid )
John de Leycestria [cf. Leicester]Master of the guesthouse; voted for John de Sheppey as prior 19 August 1333 ( ibid )
John de Scapeya [Sheppey] Subsacrist; voted for himself as prior 19 August 1333 ( ibid )
William de Bradebourne [cf. Brabourne] Refectorer; voted for John de Sheppey as prior 19 August 1333 ( ibid )
John de Wodestok [cf. Woodstock] Infirmarer; voted for John de Sheppey as prior 19 August 1333 ( ibid )
John de Mepham [cf. Meopham] Precentor; voted for John de Sheppey as prior 19 August 1333 ( ibid )
Richard Bledlawe Cellarer; voted for William de Reyersshe [Ryarsh] as prior 19 August 1333 ( ibid )
John de Scapeye [Sheppey] Voted for Robert de Suthflete [cf. Southfleet] Senior Junior as prior 19 August 1333 ( ibid )
William de Cantuaria [cf. Canterbury] Sub-Deacon 24 May 1320 ( ibid, f.44v); Deacon 14 March 1320/1321 ( ibid, f.51); Priest [?] March 1323/1324 ( ibid, f.61)
Robert de Morton Priest 24 May 1320 ( ibid, f.44v); voted for William de Reyersshe [cf. Ryarsh] as prior 19 August 1333 ( ibid, f.157)
William de Maydenstane [cf. Maidstone] Priest 24 May 1320 ( ibid, f.44v)
John de Feversham [cf. Faversham] Priest 24 May 1320 ( ibid ); witness June and August 1322 ( ibid, ff.56, 57)
John de Whitefeld [cf. Whitfield] Acolyte and deacon 29 March 1322 ( ibid, f.55v); (Whytefeld) Priest 14 October 1322 ( ibid, f.57v)
John de Reynham [Rainham] Acolyte and sub-deacon 29 March 1322 ( ibid, f.56,v); deacon 14 October 1322 ( ibid, f.57v) priest 23 October 1323 ( ibid, f.61); succentor, voted for John de Sheppey as prior 19 August 1333 ( ibid, f.157) resigned office of precentor and appointed cellarer 24 March 1341/1342 ( ibid, f.197).
Thomas Beneyt [cf. Bennet, Bennett, Benedict], Sub-deacon 29 March 1322 ( ibid, f.55v); priest Bennett] 24 October 1323 ( ibid, f.61)
Peter de Lamburne (Lambourne) [cf. Lambourn], Sub-deacon 29 March 1322 ( ibid, f.55v); priest 24 October 1323 ( ibid, f.61); subcellarer, voted for William de Reyershe [Ryarsh] as prior 19 August 1333 ( ibid, f.157)
William de Perewich Precentor, witness 5 June 1322 ( ibid, f.56)
Peter de Hethe [cf. Hythe] Acolyte 24 October 1323 (ibid, f.60v); sub-deacon 14th April 1324 ( ibid, f.61v); deacon 22 October 1324 ( ibid, f.64); priest 21 September 1325 ( ibid, f.70); voted for Robert de Suthflete (Southfleet) Senior as prior 19 August 1333 ( ibid, f.157)
Richard de Tonebregg [cf. Tonbridge] Thonebrugg) Sub-deacon 22 October 1324 ( ibid, f.64); (deacon 22 December 1324 ( ibid, f.66); priest 7 March 1324/1325 ( ibid, f.67v); voted for John de Sheppey as prior 19 August 1333 ( ibid f.157); resigned the office of chamberlain and appointed cellarer 28 September 1341 ( ibid, ff.195v, 196v); dead by 24 March 1341/1342 ( ibid, f.197)
John de London acolyte 7 March 1324/1325 ( ibid, f.67.V.); subdeacon 26 January 1325/1326 ( ibid f.71); deacon 2 April 1328 voted for John de Sheppey as prior 19 August 1333 ( ibid, f.157)
Robert de Suthflete [cf. Southfleet] Subdeacon 21 September 1325 ( ibid., f. 69v); deacon 26 January 1325/1326 ( ibid f.71); priest 2 April 1327 ( ibid f.76); resigned office of chamberlain 17 September 1326 ( ibid f.118); voted for John de Sheppey as prior 19 August 1333 ( ibid f.157); Warden of Felixstowe (Suffolk) cell; elected prior 1352; died 1361 (V.C.H. Kent, II p.125)
John de Cantuaria (Canterbury) Subdeacon 26 January 1325 (Rochester Episcopal Register I, f.71); deacon 2 April 1328 ( ibid, f.126); voted for John de Sheppey as prior 19 August 1333 ( ibid, f.157)
John de Werburgh [cf. Hoo St. Werburgh] Subdeacon 12 October 1326 ( ibid, f.74); deacon 2 April 1327 ( ibid, f.76) priest 19 December 1327 ( ibid, f.,125); voted for William de Reyersshe [cf. Ryarsh] as prior 19 August 1333 ( ibid, f.157)
William Reyersshe [cf. Ryarsh] Witness 5 June 1322 as a monk (ibid, f.56) appointed chamberlain 17 September 1326 ( ibid, f.118) sacrist 1333-1334 (DRc/F10); voted for John de Sheppey as prior 19 August 1333, but stood as candidate for the post himself and received 5/30 votes (Rochester Episcopal Register I, f.157)
John de Dovoria (Dover) [cf. Dover] Priest 2 April 1327 ( ibid, f.76); voted for Robert de Suthflete (Southfleet) Senior as prior 19 August 1333 ( ibid, f.157)
Ralph de Cantuaria [cf. Canterbury] Subdeacon 8 April 1329 ( ibid, f.128); priest 22 September 1330 (ibid, f.134); voted for John de Sheppey as prior 19 August 1333 ( ibid, f.157); resigned office of cellarer 28 September 1341 ( ibid, f.195v.)
Nicholas de Chetham [cf. Chatham] Subdeacon 8 April 1329 ( ibid, f.128); deacon 22 September 1330 ( ibid, f.134); priest 21 September 1331 ( ibid, f.145v); voted for William de Reyersshe [Ryarsh] as prior 19 August 1333 ( ibid, f.157)
Robert de Southflet [cf. Southfleet], junior Subdeacon by 3 March 1329/1330 ( ibid, f.132v); voted for John de Sheppey as prior 19 August 1333 ( ibid, f.157)
William de Haudlo [cf. Hadloo, Hadlow] acolyte 21 September 1331 ( ibid, f.145v.); subdeacon 18 December 1333 ( ibid, f.159); priest 19th September 1338 ( ibid, f.173); voted for John de Sheppey as prior 1333 ( ibid, f.157)
Thomas de Horstede [cf. Horsted] Subdeacon 21 September 1331 ( ibid, f.145v.); priest 18 December 1333 ( ibid, f.159); voted for John de Sheppey as prior 19 August 1333 ( ibid, f.157)
William de Sancta Redegunda [cf. Canterbury, St. Radigund's] Subdeacon 20 March 1332/1333 ( ibid, f.154v); priest 21 September 1335 ( ibid, f.165)
William Peper [cf. Pepper] Deacon 18 December 1333 ( ibid, f.159); voted for John de Sheppey as prior 19 August 1333 ( ibid, f.157)
William Welde Deacon 12 February 1334/1335 ( ibid, f.163v.)
John de Burgham [cf. Burham] acolyte 21 September 1335 ( ibid, f.165); subdeacon 23 January 1335/1336 ( ibid, f.166); deacon 19 September 1338 ( ibid, f.173v); priest 4 June 1341 ( ibid, f.195)
John de Uppechurche [cf. Oppecherche, Opcherch, Upcherch, Upchurch] acolyte 21 September 1335 ( ibid, f.165);p subdeacon 23 January 1335/1336 ( ibid, f.166); deacon 19 September 1338 ( ibid, f.173v.); priest 4 June 1341 ( ibid, f.195)
Thomas de Suthgate Subdeacon 21 September 1335 ( ibid, f.165); deacon 23 January 1335/1336 ( ibid, f.166)
John de Borden Subdeacon 21 September 1335 ( ibid, f.165); deacon 23 January 1335/1336 ( ibid, f.166)
John de Brokhull [cf. Brokhull] acolyte 4 June 1341 (ibid, f.195); subdeacon 16 March 1341/1342 ( ibid, f.196v.); deacon 7 June 1343 ( ibid, f.206)
Thomas Monkoy (Mounchey, Mouncoy) acolyte 4 June 1341 (ibid, f.195); subdeacon 16 March 1341/1342 ( ibid, f.196v.); deacon (ibid 7 June 1343 ( ibid, f.206)
William de Bromfeld [cf. Broomfield] Chamberlain, voted for John de Sheppey as prior 19 August 1333 ( ibid, f.157); re-appointed chamberlain 28 September 1341 ( ibid, f.195v.)
John de Oxonia [cf. Oxford] Voted for John de Sheppey as prior 19 August 1333 ( ibid, f.157); appointed subprior 19 January 1341/2 ( ibid, f.196v.)
John de Hwarfeld resigned office of subprior 19 January 1341/1342 ( ibid.)
Henry de Hengseye [cf. Henxey] Subchamberlain, voted for John de Sheppey as prior 19 August 1333 ( ibid, f.157) appointed precentor 24 March 1341/1342 ( ibid, f.197)
John Horold or de Roffa [cf. Rochester] acolyte 30 April 1345 (ibid, f.215v.); subdeacon 21 May 1345 ( ibid, f.216); deacon 24 September 1345 ( ibid, f.217); priest 22 May 1347 ( ibid, f.229v.)
Reginald de Sutton acolyte 30 April 1345 ( ibid, f.215v.); subdeacon ( ibid, f.216); deacon 24 September 1345 ( ibid, f.217); priest 22 May 1347 ( ibid, f.229v.)
John de Maidenston [cf. Maidstone] subdeacon 21 May 1345 ( ibid, f.216); deacon 24 September 1345 ( ibid, f.217)
Simon de Chalke [cf. Chalk] deacon 21 May 1345 ( ibid, f.216)
John de Ledes [cf. Leeds] deacon 21 May 1345 ( ibid, f.216); priest 22 May 1347 ( ibid, f.229v.)
John de Shorne deacon 21 May 1345 ( ibid, f.216); priest 22 May 1347 (ibid, f.229v.)
Thomas Bruyn Subdeacon 22 May 1347 ( ibid f.229v.)
John Mesehale, Mosehale acolyte 22 May 1347 (ibid, f229v.); priest 7 March 1348/9 ( ibid, f.242)
Thomas de Dovoria [cf. Dover] acolyte 1 July 1347 ( ibid, f.229v.); priest 7 March 1348/9 ( ibid, f.242)
Richard de Cantuaria [cf. Canterbury] acolyte 1 July 1347 ( ibid, f.230v.); subdeacon 14 June 1348 ( ibid, f.237v.); deacon 7 March 1348/1349 ( ibid, f.242)
Benedict de Fulkstane [cf. Folkeston, Folkestane, Folkestone] acolyte 1 July 1347 ( ibid, f.230 v.); deacon 14 June 1348 ( ibid, f.237v.); priest 7 March 1348/1349 ( ibid, f.242)
John de Hertlepe [cf. Hartlip] deacon 14 June 1348 ( ibid, f.237v.); Warden of Felixstowe (Suffolk) cell; elected prior 1361; resigned 1382 (V.C.H. Kent, II p.125)
William de Strode [cf. Strood] acolyte 14 June 1348 (Rochester Episcopal Register I, f.237v.); subdeacon 19 September 1349 ( ibid, f.252v)
Thomas de Frendesbury [cf. Frindsbury] deacon 14 June 1348 ( ibid, f.237); priest 7 March 1348/1349 ( ibid, f.242)
William Farndone subdeacon 19 September 1349 ( ibid, f.252v.)
John de Roffa [cf. Rochester] deacon Witsun week 1353 ( ibid, f.259v.)
John de Ludesdon [cf. Luddesdown] deacon Witsun week 1353 ( ibid, f.259v.); priest 22 December 1358 ( ibid, f.263)
Laurance de Adyngton [cf. Addington] subdeacon 20 December 1354 ( ibid, f.263); deacon 22 December 1355 ( ibid, f.284)
John Morel priest 22 December 1355 ( ibid, f.284); subprior, dead by 1 June 1392 ( ibid. II, f.27)
Richard de Schom priest 22 December 1355 ( ibid, I,f.284)
Raymond Pelegrim [cf. Pilgrim] subdeacon 22 December 1358 ( ibid, f.294); deacon [1360/1361] ( ibid, f.303v.)
William de Upchirche [cf. Upchurch] acolyte [1360/1361] ( ibid ); priest 17 December 1362 ( ibid, f.320)
John de Hertlepe [cf. Hartlip] acolyte [1350/1351] ( ibid, f.303v.); priest 17 December 1362 ( ibid, f.320)
John de Speldhurst acolyte 17 December 1362 ( ibid, f.320)
John de Maydestan, (Maideston) [cf. Maidstone] acolyte 17 December 1362 ( ibid ); priest 13 June 1367 ( ibid, f.329v.)
Thomas de Henotsham deacon 17 December 1362 ( ibid, f.320)
Thomas de Ledes [cf. Leeds] deacon 17 December 1362 ( ibid )
William de Maydestan, (Maidestan) [cf. Maidstone] acolyte 17 December 1362 (ibid); priest 30 May 1364 ( ibid, f.327v.)
John Shepeye [cf. Sheppey] subdeacon 30 May 1364 ( ibid ); priest 19 September 1367 ( ibid, f.330v.); elected prior 1380; died 1419 (V.C.H. Kent, II p.125)
Nicholas de Frendesbury [cf. Frindsbury] deacon 30 May 1364 (Rochester Episcopal Register I, f.327v.); chamberlain 1385-1386 (DRc/F13); reappointed 16 February 1393/1394 (Rochester Episcopal Register II, f.44v); resigned 7 October 1394 ( ibid, f.89); reappointed 30 June 1398 ( ibid, f.117) resigned 30 October 1401 ( ibid, f.166v.)
John Corf [cf. Corfe] acolyte 13 June 1367 ( ibid. I,f.329 v.)
William Thornham [cf. Thurnham] subdeacon 13 June 1367 ( ibid ); deacon 19 September 1367 ( ibid )
John Umfray [cf. Humphrey, Humphreys] subdeacon 13 June 1367 ( ibid )
John Dane cellarer 1383-1384 (DRc/F12)
John de Holyngbourne [cf. Hollingbourne] appointed subprior 1 June 1392 (Rochester Episcopal register II,f.27); resigned and appointed cellarer 8 October 1400 ( ibid, f.150v,151)
Roger Stapelherste, [cf. Stapilherst, Staplehurst] appointed precentor 13 April 1392 ( ibid, f.26); resigned 28 June 1394 ( ibid, f.51); appointed chamberlain 7 October 1394 ( ibid, f.89; DRc/F14); resgined 30 June 1398 (Rochester Episcopal Register II, f.117)
Robert Strode [cf. Strood] resigned office of precentor 13 April 1392 ( ibid, f.26); reappointed 28 June 1394 ( ibid, f.51); resigned 9 October 1400 ( ibid, f.151); reappointed 1 April 1401 ( ibid., f.160)
William Marchaunt [cf. Marchant] professed 1 September 1393 ( ibid, f.42); subdeacon 6 March 1394/1395 ( ibid, f.144v.); resigned office of subprior 6 October 1446 ( ibid. III, f.208)
Richard Thornham [cf. Thurnham] professed 1 September 1393 ( Ibid II,f.42); priest 24 September 1396 ( ibid, f.145v.); infirmarer 1424-1425 (DRc/F16)
Walter Roffchestre [cf. Rochester] professed 1 September 1393 (Rochester Episcopal Register II, f.42); subdeacon 6 March 1394/1395 ( ibid, f.144v.); resigned office of chamberlain 7 October 1432 ( ibid, IIIf.33v.)
John London priest 6 March 1394/1395 ( ibid. II,f.145)
William Tonebreg [cf. Tonbridge] acolyte 24 September 1396 ( ibid, f.145v.); subdeacon 21 December 1398 ( ibid, f.146); priest 18 December 1400 ( ibid., f.156v.); elected prior 1419 (V.C.H. Kent II, p.125); died 1444/1445 (Rochester Episcopal Register III, f.203)
Henry Stoke acolyte 24 September 1396 ( ibid II, f.145v.); subdeacon 21 December 1398 ( ibid f.146); priest 18 December 1400 ( ibid, f.156v.)
William Mawfeld (Maghfeld, Mawghfeld) acolyte 24 December 1396 ( ibid f.145v); subdeacon 21 December 1398 ( ibid., f.146); deacon 18 December 1400 ( ibid., f.156v)
Thomas Brown appointed subprior 9 October 1440 ( ibid., f.151)
John Swan appointed precentor 9 October 1400 ( ibid ); resigned 1 April 1401 ( ibid., f.160)
William Pecham [cf. Peckham] acolyte 18 December 1400 ( ibid., f.156); subdeacon 23 September 1402 ( ibid., f.181v); deacon 22 September 1403 ( ibid. III, f.37v)' priest 29 March 1404 ( ibid. II., f.186v)
John Hegham [cf. Heigham, Higham] acolyte 18 December 1400 ( ibid., f.156); subdeacon 23 September 1402 ( ibid., f.181v); deacon 22 September 1403 ( ibid. III., f.37v); priest 29 March 1404 ( ibid. II., f.186v)
Thomas de Ealding [cf. Yalding] appointed chamberlain 30 October 1401 ( ibid., f.166v); in office 1415-1416 (DRc/F15); sacrist on 25 May 1425 (Rochester Episcopal Register III, f.47v)
John Clyve [cf. Cliffe] subdeacon 23 September 1402 ( ibid. II., f.181v); deacon 22 September 1403 ( ibid. III., f.37v); priest 29 March 1404 ( ibid. II, f.186v); cellarer on 25 May 1425 ( ibid. III.,f.47v); elected prior 1445 ( ibid., f.203); died 1460 ( ibid., f.233v)
John Rouchester [cf. Rochester] professed December 1423 ( ibid., f.60v); subdeacon 22 September 1425 ( ibid., f.50v)
Thomas Tounbregg (Tonbregg) [cf. Tonbridge] subdeacon December 1423 ( ibid., f.60v); deacon 7 March 1424/1425 ( ibid., f.46v); priest 14 June 1427 ( ibid., f.81v)
William Cauntyrbery [cf. Canterbury] professed December 1423 ( ibid., f.60v); subdeacon 7 March 1424/1425 ( ibid., f.46v); deacon 22 September 1425 ( ibid., f.50v); appointed precentor 12 Octber 1455 ( ibid., f.227)
William Shepey [cf. Sheppey] professed December 1423 ( ibid., f.60v); subdeacon 22 April 1424 ( ibid., f.62); deacon 7 Mar 1424/1425 ( ibid., f.46v); priest 4 December 1426 ( ibid., f.79); resigned office of Chamberlain 12 October 1455 ( ibid., f227)
William Lorkyn [cf. Lorkin, Lurkyn, Lorkyns, Lurkyn, Larkin] subdeacon December 1423 ( ibid., f.60v); deacon 22 April 1425 ( ibid., f.62); priest 7 March 1424/1425 ( ibid., f.46v); appointed chamberlain 12 October 1455 ( ibid., f.227)
William Rouchestre [cf. Rochester] subprior on 25 May 1425 ( ibid., f.47v)
John Elding [cf. Yalding] precentor on 25 May 1425 ( ibid. ); appointed precentor 7 October 1432 ( ibid., f.33v); dead by 23 April 1439 ( ibid., f.142
) Walter Sheppey almoner 1430-1431 (DRc/F11)
John London deacon 15 March 1431/1432 (Rochester Episcopal Register III.,f.89v)
John Tounbregg [cf. Tonbridge] subdeacon 31 Mar 1431 ( ibid., f.88); deacon 15 March 1431/1432 ( ibid., f.89v)
Thomas Frendysbery (Freneysbery) [cf. Frindsbury]subdeacon 31 March 1431 ( ibid., f.88); deacon 15 March 1431/1432 ( ibid., f.89v); priest March 1434 ( ibid., f.90v)
John Shepton resigned office of precentor and appointed chamberlain 7 October 1432 ( ibid., f.33v); appointed sacrist 6 October 1446 ( ibid., f.208)
Robert Florence acolyte and subdeacon 13 March 1433/1434, deacon March 1434 ( ibid., f.90v)
William Maydeston [cf. Maidstone] acolyte 21 December 1438 ( ibid., f.126); subdeacon 4 April 1439 ( ibid., f.142); appointed precentor 1 December 1458 ( ibid., f.232v)
John Shepeye [cf. Sheppey] acolyte 21 December 1438 ( ibid., f.126); subdeacon 4 April 1439 ( ibid., f.142); deacon 24 September 1440 ( ibid., f.156)
Bertram London acolyte 21 December 1438 ( ibid., f.126); subdeacon 24 September 1440 ( ibid., f.156); deacon 10 June 1441 ( ibid., f.160); resigned office of precentor 1 December 1458 ( ibid., f.232v.)
Richard Crowmer [cf. Cromer] acolyte 21 December 1438 ( ibid., f.126); subdeacon 24 September 1440 ( ibid., f.156); deacon 10 June 1441 ( ibid., f.160); appointed sacrist 11 October 1465 ( ibid., f.245v)
Richard de Oxinforde [cf. Oxford] Bachelor of Theology, appointed precentor 23 April 1439 ( ibid., f.142); served as precentor and sacrist till 6 October 1446 when he resigned as sacrist and was appointed subprior ( ibid., f.208)
William London professed ( ibid., f.157); subdeacon 24 September 1440 ( ibid., f.156); deacon 10 June 1441 ( ibid., f.160); priest 18 April 1443 ( ibid., f.187); appointed cellarer 14 December 1458 ( ibid., f.232v)
John Causton professed ( ibid., f.157); subdeacon 24 September 1440 ( ibid., f.156); deacon 22 September 1443 ( ibid., f.190); priest 19 September 1444 ( ibid., f.200); appointed precentor 11 October 1465 ( ibid., f.245v); appointed chamberlain 10 October 1466 ( ibid., f.247v)
John Wells of Faversham (75) presented 18 April 1443 ( ibid., f.187); professed c.24 October 1444 ( ibid., f.191v.); deacon 18 September 1445 ( ibid., f.203v); priest 7 June 1449 ( ibid., f.220v.)
Simon Stevyn [cf. Stephene, Stephen, Steven, Stevens, Stephens] of Hoo [cf. Hoo St. Werburgh] (75) presented 18 April 1443 ( ibid., f.187); professed c. 24 October 1444 ( ibid., f.191v.); priest 21 September 1449 ( ibid., f.220)
Thomas Lincoln of London (75) presented 18 April 1443 ( ibid., f.187); professed c.24 October 1444 ( ibid., f.191v.); priest 17 December 1446 ( ibid., f.209)
John Cobham presented 18 April 1443 ( ibid., f.187); professed c.24 October 1444 ( ibid., f.191v.)
Simon Hake deacon 18 September 1445 ( ibid., f.203v.)
William Kyrton professed c.7 September 1446 ( ibid. mf.207v.); acolyte and subdeacon 17 December 1446 ( ibid., f.209); priest 7 June 1449 ( ibid., f.220v.)
William Walbroke professed c.7 September 1446 ( ibid., f.207v.); acolyte and subdeacon 17 December 1446 ( ibid., f.209); deacon 19 September 1450 ( ibid., f.220v.); priest 22 September 1453 ( ibid., f.226)

[(75) Presented in their own surnames but professed in the name of the place from which they came.]

Richard Pecham [cf. Peckham] professed c. 7 September 1446 ( ibid, f.207v.); acolyte and subdeacon 17 December 1446 ( ibid, f.209); priest 19 September 1450 ( ibid, f.220v.); elected prior 1460 ( ibid., f.233v.); occurs 1463 (DRc/T336); 1467 (V.C.H. Kent, II, p.125).
John Caunturbery (Canterbury) acolyte 21 September 1448 (Rochester Episcopal Register III, F.216v.) subdeacon 7 June 1449 ( ibid, f.220v.); deacon 21 September 1449 ( ibid. f.220); priest 3 June 1452 ( ibid, f.223)
Thomas Sellying [cf. Selling] acolyte 21 September 1448 ( ibid, f.216v.); subdeacon 7 June 1449 ( ibid, f.220v.); deacon 21 September 1449 ( ibid, f.220)
Richard Caunterbury [cf. Canterbury] acolyte 19 September 1450 ( ibid, f.220v.); subdeacon 19 June 1451 ( ibid, f.221); deacon 3 June 1452 ( ibid, f.223); priest 15 June 1454 ( ibid, f.225)
William Baker of Queenborough, Sheppey (76) 1st tonsure and acolyte 19 September 1450 ( ibid, f.220v.); subdeacon 19 June 1451 ( ibid, f.221); deacon 3 June 1452 ( ibid, f.223)
Thomas Wroteham [cf. Wrotham] acolyte and subdeacon 15 June 1454 ( ibid, f.225)
John Summying acolyte and subdeacon 20 December 1454 ( ibid, f.226v.); deacon 20 September 1455 ( ibid, f.227c.); priest June 1457 ( ibid, f.228); appointed precentor 10 October 1466 ( ibid, f.247v.)
John Luk acolyte and subdeacon 15 June 1454 ( ibid, f.255); deacon 20 December 1454 ( ibid, f.226v.)
John Abbas acolyte and subdeacon 20 December 1454 ( ibid, f.226v.); deacon 20 September 1455 ( ibid, f.227v.); priest 18 December 1462 ( ibid, f.238)
Thomas Dorham [cf. Derham, Dereham] acolyte 24 September 1457, subdeacon 1 April 1458 ( ibid, f.231); deacon Easter Saturday 1460, priest 7 June 1460 ( ibid, f.233)
John Maydeston [cf. Maidstone] acolyte 24 September 1457, subdeacon 1 April 1458 ( ibid, f.231); deacon Easter Saturday 1460 ( ibid, f.233); appointed subprior 11 October 1465 ( ibid, f.245v.)
Thomas Wybarn [cf. Wilbor, Wilbore, Wylbore, Wybore, Wylbor, Wybarne, Wybarnes, Wyrbarne, Wyborn, Wyborne, Wybor, Wybon, Wiborne, Wibarn, Wildbore] subdeacon 1 April 1458, deacon? 24 September 1458 ( ibid, f.231); appointed subprior 4 February 1462/1463 ( ibid, f.243v.); ?almoner 1431-1432 (DRc/F11)
Thomas Bourne acolyte 14 April 1458 (Rochester Episcopal Register III, f.231); subdeacon Easter Saturday 1460 ( ibid, f.233); deacon and priest 19 September 1461 ( ibid, f.236v.); prior, occurs 1478 (DRc/Elb1A, f.40), 1479, 1480 (V.C.H. Kent, II, p.125), 1482 (DRc/Elb1A, f.10), 1486 (V.C.H. Kent, II p.125), 1488 (DRc/T104/1); 1489 (V.C.H. Kent, II, p.124), 1492 (DRc/Elb1A, f.16) resigned 1494 (Rochester Episcopal Register III, f.7)
Ralph London acolyte 1 April 1458 ( ibid, f.231); Subdeacon 18 December 1462 ( ibid, f.237v.)

[(76) Known as William Shepey [cf. Sheppey] and William Qwenburgh [Queenborough]]

William Strode [cf. Strood] acolyte 1 April 1458 ( ibid f.231)
Henry Wade or Ward [?] acolyte 1 April 1458 ( ibid ); subdeacon 19 September 1461 ( ibid, f.236v.); deacon 18 December 1462 ( ibid, f.238); priest 20 December 1466 ( ibid, f.247v.)
Richard Bamburgh appointed chamberlain 18 October 1458 ( ibid, f.232v.)
John Snell [cf. Snel] cellarer, dead by 14 December 1458 ( ibid )
William Wood appointed subprior 10 September 1461 ( ibid, f234v.); prior, occurs 1468 (V.C.H. Kent, II, p.125), 1470 (DRc/T301), 1472 (DRc/T288), 1475 (DRc/T281). See also DRc/Elb1A
Nicholas Bigton (Bygton) Register of Ossory, Ireland subdeacon 19 September 1461 (Rochester Episcopal III, f.236v.); admitted to all holy orders 18 December 1462 ( ibid, f.238)
William Ancellin [cf. Auncel, Auncell, Ansel, Ansell, Awnsell, Ancellin, Awncell] subdeacon and deacon 19 September 1461 ( ibid, f.235v., 236v.); priest 30 March 1464 ( ibid, f.243v.)
Ralph Olyff [cf. Olive, Olliff] deacon 22 December 1463 ( ibid, f.244)
John Swan acolyte and subdeacon 22 December 1463 ( ibid ); deacon 30 December 1464 ( ibid, f.243v.)
John Auncell 1st tonsure and acolyte 30 March 1464 ( ibid ); subdeacon 21 December 1465 ( ibid, f.245v.); deacon 20 December 1466 ( ibid, f.247v.); appointed subprior 1494 ( ibid IV, f.7v.); resigned 17 December 1517 ( ibid, f.76v.)
John Novyn 1st tonsure and acolyte 30 March 1464 ( ibid III, f.234v.); subdeacon 21 December 1465 ( ibid, f.245v.); deacon 20 December 1466 ( ibid, f.247v.); resigned office of subprior 1494 ( ibid IV, f.7v.)
Edmund Hatfield 1st tonsure 20 December 1466 ( ibid III, f.247v.)
William Lecestre [cf. Leicester] Released from oath of obedience 1480 (DRc/Elb1A, f.6v. and introduction)
William Bisshop [cf. Bysshop, Byshop, Bysshopp, Bysshoppe, Bishop] elected prior 1494 ( ibid. IV, f.7); resigned 1509 ( ibid., f.53)
John Benet [cf. Bennett, Benedict] deacon 8 March 1504/1505 ( ibid, f.41)
John Bagg deacon 8 March 1504/1505 ( ibid )
Stephen Millet of Hoo [cf. Hoo St. Werburgh] [deacon 18 December 1507 ( ibid, f.48); priest 22 December 1509 ( ibid, f.53v.)
John Harvey of Maidstone acolyte 8 April 1508 ( ibid, f.50); subdeacon 22 December 1509 ( ibid, f.53v.); deacon 30 March 1509/1510 ( ibid., f.54); priest 19 April 1511 ( ibid, f.55v.); resigned office of precentor 2 December 1514 ( ibid, f.72v.); appointed sacrist 20 November 1518 ( ibid, f.77v); dead by 12 November 1521 ( ibid, f.108).
Thomas Coste of Stoke acolyte 8 April 1508 ( ibid, f.50); subdeacon 22 December 1509 ( ibid, f.53v.); deacon 30 March 1509/1510 ( ibid, f.54); priest 19 April 1511 ( ibid, f.65v.); appointed precentor 1 October 1511 ( ibid, f.57v.); dead by 31 March 1514 ( ibid, f.71)
Thomas Nevell [cf. Neville] Acolyte 8 April 1508 ( ibid, f.50); subdeacon 22 December 1509 ( ibid, f.53v); deacon 30 March 1509/1510 ( ibid, f.54); priest 19 April 1511 ( ibid, f.55v.); appointed chamberlain 9 October 1530 ( ibid, f.159); present at election of Lawrence Dan as prior 1532 ( ibid, f.173)
Anthony Brown of London acolyte 8 April 1508 ( ibid, f.50 ); subdeacon 22 December 1509 ( ibid, f.53v); deacon 30 March 1509/1510 ( ibid, f.54); priest 19 April 1511 ( ibid, f.55v); appointed chamberlain 2 December 1514 ( ibid, f.72v); appointed subprior 17 December 1517 ( ibid, f.76v.); resigned and appointed cellarer 5 October 1526 ( ibid, f.134v.); appointed sacrist 12 November 1532 ( ibid, f.174); present at election of Lawrence Dan [cf. Dann] as prior 1532 ( ibid, f.173)
William Fresell (Frysell) elected prior 1509 ( ibid, f.53); died 1532 ( ibid, f.173; formerly prior of Binham, Norfolk, and professed at St. Albans (Hertfordshire). Took oath of allegiance to Rochester on becoming prior ( ibid, f.53)
Lawrence Dan (Dann) of Mereworth deacon 8 March 1504/1505 ( ibid, f.41); resigned office of of Mereworth cellarer and appointed sacrist 2 December 1574 ( ibid, f.72v.); resigned and re-appointed cellarer 12 November 1578 ( ibid, f.77v); removed from office but replaced 22 October 1522 ( ibid, f.108v.); resigned and appointed subprior 5 October 1526 ( ibid, f.134v.); resigned and elected prior 11 November 1532 ( ibid, f.173); resigned 1538 (V.C.H. Kent, II p.125)
John Noble appointed precentor 8 November 1510 ( ibid, f.55); appointed sacrist 12 November 1521 ( ibid, f.108); resigned 20 August 1523 ( ibid, f.110v.); appointed chamberlain 20 September 1525 ( ibid, f.130v.); dead by 20 January 1525/1526 ( ibid, f.133)
William Mafelde [cf. Mayfield] professed 19 January 1521/1522 ( ibid, f.108); priest c.6 June 1525 ( ibid, f.129v.); appointed precentor 28 July 1525 ( ibid, f.130v.); resigned 30 September 1530 ( ibid, f.159); present at election of Lawrence Dan [cf. Dann] as prior 1532 ( ibid, f.173)
Thomas Hemsby or Graye resigned office of precentor 8 November 1510 ( ibid, f.55); reappointed 8 January 1514/1515 ( ibid, f.73v); resigned 12 November 1521 ( ibid, f.108); appointed sacrist 20 August 1523 ( ibid, f.110v.); resigned 9 October 1530 ( ibid, f.159); reappointed precentor 1 December 1535 ( ibid, f.184v.); present at election of Lawrence Dan as prior 1532 ( ibid, f.73)
William Waterford appointed chamberlain 1 October 1511 ( ibid, f.57v.); resigned 2 December 1514 ( ibid, f.72v.)
Robert Pilton of Rochester appointed sacrist 20 September 1511 ( ibid, f.57v.); DRc/F17); resigned 31 March 1514 (Rochester Episcopal Register IV, f.71); reappointed sacrist 9 October 1530 ( ibid, f.159); resigned and approved subprior 11 November 1532 ( ibid, f.174); present at election of Lawrence Dan as prior 1532 ( ibid, f.173)
John Clarke of Gravesend 1st tonsure, acolyte 20 September 1511, subdeacon 20 December 1511 ( ibid, f.57v.)
Nicholas Darsingham acolyte 10 April 1512 ( ibid, f.59); priest 22 March 1514/1515 ( ibid, f.73v); appointed precentor 12 November 1521 ( ibid, f.108)
Thomas Fresell acolyte 10 April 1512 ( ibid, f.59)
John Cambreg [Cambridge acolyte 10 April 1512 ( ibid ); subdeacon 22 March 1514/1515 ( ibid, f.73v.); priest 28 February 1517/1518 ( ibid, f.77)
John Baston acolyte 10 April 1512 ( ibid, f.59); deacon 22 March 1514/1515 ( ibid, f.73v.)
Thomas Ware of Tonbridge subdeacon 10 April 1512 ( ibid, f.59)
William Harvy [cf. Harvey] of Farleigh professed 26 November 1514 ( ibid, f.72); deacon 28 February 1517/1518 ( ibid, f.76v.)
Henry Bridd of Southfleet professed 26 November 1514 ( ibid, f.72); deacon 28 February 1517/1518 ( ibid., f.76v.)
Thomas Maye of Linton professed 26 November 1514 ( ibid, f.72)
Walter Philip [cf. Philippes, Phillips, Philips, Phyllyppes, Phylyppes, Phylippes, Phillippes, Philyppes, Philypes] of Boxley professed 26 November 1514 ( ibid ); deacon 20 December 1522 ( ibid, f.109); present at election of Lawrence Dan [cf. Dann] as prior 1532 ( ibid, f.173); prior, occurs 1538 (DRc/T164), 1539 (DRc/T282, 335/1), 1540 (DRc/T335/4); appointed first Dean of Rochester 1541 (V.C.H. Kent II, p.126); died 1570 and buried in the cathedral at Rochester (C.H. Fielding, Records of Rochester Diocese, p.500)
John Dertforde [cf. Dartford] appointed precentor 2 December 1574 (Rochester Episcopal Register IV, f.72v.); appointed chamberlain 8 January 1514/15 (ibid, f.73v.); resigned 12 November 1518 ( ibid, f.77v.);
William Channock appointed cellarer 2 December 1514 (ibid, f.72v.); resigned 12 November 1518 ( ibid, f.77v.); present at election of Lawrence Dan as prior 1532 ( ibid, f.173)
William Hony [cf. Honey] of St. Albans [Hertfordshire] professed 26 November 1514 ( ibid, f.72); subdeacon 28 February 1517/1518 ( ibid, f.76v.); appointed chamberlain 20 January 1525/1526 ( ibid, f.133); resigned 9 October 1530 ( ibid, f.159); present at election of Lawrence Dan as prior 1532 ( ibid, f.173)
Robert Smyth [cf. Smith] subcellarer 1511-1512 (DRc/F17); appointed sacrist 31 March 1514 (Rochester Episcopal Register IV, f.71); resigned 2 December 1514( ibid, f.72 v.); present at election of Lawrence Dan as prior 1532 ( ibid, f.173)
John Stace of Cobham professed 26 November 1514 ( ibid, f.72); subdeacon 22 March 1514/1515 ( ibid, f.73v.); priest 28 February 1517/1518 ( ibid, f.77); present at election of Lawrence Dan as prior 1532 ( ibid, f.173)
Robert Harvy [cf. Harvey] appointed precentor 31 March 1514 ( ibid, f.71); resigned [?] 2 December 1514 ( ibid, f.72v.)
Robert Forman [cf. Foreman] of professed 26 November 1514 ( ibid, f.72); deacon 28 February 1574 ( ibid, f.76v.); appointed chamberlain ? 16 February 1523/1524 ( ibid, f.111); resigned 20 September 1525 ( ibid, f.130v.); appointed precentor 30 September 1530 ( ibid, f.159); present at election of Lawrence Dan [cf. Dann] as prior 1532 ( ibid, f.173)
John Peckham [cf. Pecham] appointed chamberlain 12 November 1518 ( ibid, f.77v.); resigned [?] 16 February 1523/1524 ( ibid, f.111)
John Rye professed 19 January 1521/1522 ( ibid, f.108); deacon 20 September 1522 ( ibid, f.109); present at election of Lawrence Dan [cf. Dann] as prior 1532 ( ibid, f.173)
William Assheforde [cf. Ashford] professed 19 January 1521/1522 ( ibid, f.108)
John Chechestre [cf. Chichester] professed 19 Jan. 1521/1522 ( ibid ); subdeacon 20 December 1522 ( ibid., f.109); priest c.6 June 1525 ( ibid., f.129v.)
Valentine Wynchestre [cf. Winchester] professed 19 January 1521/1522 ( ibid, f.108); subdeacon 20 December 1522 ( ibid., f.109)
Nicholas Spelhurste [cf. Speldhurst] professed 19 January 1521/1522 ( ibid., f.108); present at election of Lawrence Dan as prior 1532 ( ibid., f.173)
John Ilstoke (Ipstok) professed 19 January 1521/1522 ( ibid, f.108); deacon 20 December 1522 ( ibid., f.109)
John Drye deacon 20 December 1522 ( ibid.)
Thomas Mayner or Fleere professed 22 December 1527 ( ibid., f.138v); priest 1533 ( ibid., f.180); present at election of Lawrence Dan [cf. Dann] as prior 1532 ( ibid., f.173)
Thomas Lamb of Canterbury professed 22 December 1527 ( ibid., f.138v.)
John Watts of Rochester professed 22 December 1527 ( ibid. )
William Saxton or Keble professed 22 December 1527 ( ibid. )
John Cobb of Staplehurst professed 22 December 1527 ( ibid. ); present at election of Lawrence Dan as prior 1532 ( ibid., f.173)
Richard Albertson of Chatham professed 22 December 1527 ( ibid., f.138v.); present at election of Lawrence Dan as prior 1532 ( ibid., f.173)
Thomas Cokk [cf. Cok] professed 22 December 1527 ( ibid., f.138v); present at election of Lawrence Dan [cf. Dann] as prior 1532 ( ibid., f.173)
Robert Chamberleyn [Chamberlain] of London professed 22 December 1527 ( ibid., f.138v); deacon 21 May 1532 ( ibid., f.164); present at election of Lawrence Dan [cf. Dann] as prior 1532 ( ibid., f.173)
Richard Bradfelde [cf. Bradfield] or Revell professed 1 August 1529 et ipsum vestibus monachialibus induit (ibid., f.151); present at election of Lawrence Dan [cf. Dann] as prior 1532 ( ibid., f.173)
James Bere [cf. Beere] 1st tonsure 26 March 1529 aged 9 years ( ibid., f.145v.)
William Canturbury [cf. Canterbury] present at election of Lawrence Dan as prior 1532 ( ibid, f.173)
William Lunto present at election of Lawrence Dan [cf. Dann] as prior 1532 ( ibid. )
John Owen of Oxford [Oxfordshire] 1st tonsure 12 March 1537 ( ibid., f.193)

See also The Bishops and Monks of Rochester 1076-1214 by Colin Flight, no. vi in the Kent Archaeological Society monograph series, 1997, copy in the local studies collections at this centre, ref. ROC283FLI.

File updated by Borough Archivist 14 December 2001.

Date: n/a
Quantity: n/a
Result number 17 - Please quote Reference: DRc_Rochester_Priory_and_other_Religious_Houses_1080_1541/DRc_T478_07 on request slip.

Path: Ecclesiastical_Regular_and_Capitular_Foundations/ DRc_Rochester_Priory_and_other_Religious_Houses_1080_1541/ BA01_Foundation_Charters_Title_Deeds_and_Leases_c1090_1539/ 03_Priory_of_St_Mary_and_St_Nicholas_Leeds_Kent_c1095_1539/ DRc_T478_07.html

Priory of St. Mary and St. Nicholas Leeds, Kent

Feoffment 1440

Thomas Bone, vicar of Herne Hill to John Sampson, citizen and tawyer of London and Agnes, his Wife, late the wife of William Brice, sometime citizen and fuller of London:

Same property which he had by gift and confirmation of William Brice, Henry Brice, fuller and Richard Honyngton, skinner, citizens of London.

Witnesses:

Robert Large, mayor of London, Robert Marchall [cf. Marshall, Mareschal] and John Malpas, sheriffs of London, Thomas Wandesford, alderman of that ward, William Shipton, John Wokkyng, John Lacy at London

Endorsements:

1. Ista Carta lecta fuit et irrotulata in Hustengo London de placitis terre tento die lune proxima ante festum Sancte Fidis virginis Anno regni Regis Henrici sexti post conquestum vicesimo tercio. Barnet (Hertfordshire) [5 October 1444]
2. Sol' [15th Century]
3. Sampson [16th Century]

Seal.

Latin.
Date: 11 April 1440
Quantity: 1 item


Result number 18 - Please quote Reference: DRc_Rochester_Priory_and_other_Religious_Houses_1080_1541/DRc_L13 on request slip.

Path: Ecclesiastical_Regular_and_Capitular_Foundations/ DRc_Rochester_Priory_and_other_Religious_Houses_1080_1541/ BA04_Legal_Records_1096_1535/ 01_St_Andrews_Priory_Rochester_1096_1523/ DRc_L13.html

Agreement 1378

William, Abbott of St. Mary Grace, by the Tower of London; John, Prior of Rochester; and William Knight of Welwes [cf. Welwyn?], Hertfordshire and Simon Aderne of Brayles [i.e. Brailes], Warwickshire:

William Knight and Simon Aderne are bound to Hugh Wynkebourne [cf. Winkburn] and Richard Payn [cf. Payne, Paine], citizens of London in 40 li. By a deed of 23 January 1375/1376 they had agreed that if William Knight came to London when asked and by lawful process recovered a tenement in London and its suburbs which they required, and then placed it at their disposal, the bond would be void. If, however, he could not do this, he and Simon Aderne would pay Hugh Wynkebourne [cf. Winkburn] and Richard Payn [cf. Payne, Paine] a certain [unspecified] sum of money.

William, Abbot of St. Mary Grace and John, Prior of Rochester are bound to William Knight and Simon Aderne in 50 li. to be paid at Christmas 1378. William Knight and Simon Aderne agreed that if either of them was impleaded by Hugh Wynkebourne [cf. Winkburn] and Richard Payne [cf. Payn, Paine] on account of the bond between them, that they would seek legal advice from the abbot and prior. If they are wronged in the plea, the abbot and prior would make restitution to them of their damages within one month in St. Mary Grace, and the bond would be void. If the abbot and prior failed to do this or give legal advice, they would be obliged to stand by their bond.

This document may be preliminary to the making of a fine. It is obviously one third part of an indenture.

Seal of Simon Welwes [cf. Welwyn?] only.

Document stained.

Latin.

Endorsement:

William Knygth's [cf. Knight’s] and Simon Ardennes' Bond to indemnify the Prior and Convent of Rochester in a Law-Suit. 12. 2 Richard 2 [i.e. King Richard II] AD 1379 [18th. century]
Date: 12 October 1378
Quantity: 1 membrane


Result number 19 - Please quote Reference: DRc_Rochester_Priory_and_other_Religious_Houses_1080_1541/DRc_L27_1 on request slip.

Path: Ecclesiastical_Regular_and_Capitular_Foundations/ DRc_Rochester_Priory_and_other_Religious_Houses_1080_1541/ BA04_Legal_Records_1096_1535/ 02_St_Mary_and_St_Nicholas_Priory_Leeds_1241_1535/ DRc_L27_1.html

Letter 1339

William Trussell, the King's eschaetor this side of the Trent quoting two royal mandates of [King] Edward III (1, 2 and 3 below) and his own mandate to the subescheator in Kent (DRc/L27/2).

1. [King] Edward III to William Trussell, eschaetor this side of the Trent:

He has pardoned Leeds priory for acquiring 1 acre land in Chatham in fee from Ralph atte Pette, ½ acre land in Chatham from Simon atte Pette, and 4 acre land in Rainham from John Elys in free alms contrary to the terms of the statute of Mortmain.

Witness:

Edward, Duke of Cornwall and Earl of Chester, Regent of England at Berkhampstead [Hertfordshire], 24 April 1339.

2. [King] Edward III to William Trussell, eschaetor this side of the Trent:

He has pardoned Leeds priory for acquiring the following property from John de Evesham, clerk in free alms contrary to the terms of the statute of Mortmain:-

Messuage; 17 dayworks; ¼ daywork; 1½ dayworks and 12¼ dayworks arable land in Rainham' ½ acre land near Fermondesland, 3 virgates and 8 dayworks land in Rainham; messuage with the site and buildings which he brought from William de Woldham [cf. Wouldham], clerk, in Rainham; 6½ acres land with a house built on it in West Rainham (Westrenham); a watermill at West Rainham with marshland; 20 acres; 3 acres; 7 acres land with houses and trees; 3 acres; and 2 acres 5 dayworks land, all in Borden.

Witness:

Edward, Duke of Cornwall and Earl of Chester, Regent of England at Berkhampstead [Hertfordshire], 24 April 1339.

3. [King] Edward III to William Trussell, eschaetor this side of the Trent:

Order to the eschaetor to allow the priory to hold 16 acres 6 virgates 6 dayworks land in Borden given them by Nicholas Blundel of Borden whose charter had been ratified by the King's grandfather, [King] Edward [I].

Witness:

Edward, Duke of Cornwall and Earl of Chester, Regent of England at Berkhampstead [Hertfordshire], 20 May 1339.

Endorsements:

1. Chetham [i.e. Chatham], Renham [i.e. Rainham] , Borden . [14th century]
2. Chetham . [i.e. Chatham] [16th century]

Latin.
Date: 21 May 1339
Quantity: 1 membrane, sewn to DRc/L27/2


Result number 20 - Please quote Reference: DRc_Rochester_Priory_and_other_Religious_Houses_1080_1541/DRc_Z33 on request slip.

Path: Ecclesiastical_Regular_and_Capitular_Foundations/ DRc_Rochester_Priory_and_other_Religious_Houses_1080_1541/ BA05_Miscellaneous_and_Fragmentary_Records_1250_1538/ 05_St_Marys_Abbey_Boxley_c1330/ DRc_Z33.html

Attested copy of a bull of Pope Lucius III (1181-1185) Verulamium [St. Albans, Hertfordshire]. Original dated 6 May c.1181 x c.1185. Copy dated c.1300.

Latin
Date: c.1300
Quantity: 1 membrane with seal tape and pendant seal


Result number 21 - Please quote Reference: DRc_Rochester_Priory_and_other_Religious_Houses_1080_1541/DRc_R1 on request slip.

Path: Ecclesiastical_Regular_and_Capitular_Foundations/ DRc_Rochester_Priory_and_other_Religious_Houses_1080_1541/ BA07_Registers_of_the_Cathedral_Priory_C12_C14/ DRc_R1.html

WITHDRAWN

The Textus Roffensis

(Textus de Ecclesia Roffensi per Ernulphum episcopum) * (The Book of the Church of Rochester through Bishop Ernulf)

12th. - 14th. Centuries

For the newly launched digital images of the Textus Roffensis, please follow this link (to Rochester Cathedral website)

 http://www.rochestercathedral.org/news/categories/cathedral-news/288-textus-roffensis-online

 

Introduction

The Textus Roffensis is more properly two distinct books, though written at about the same time, and largely by the same scribe, which were only bound together some time after 1300. The first part contains one of the most important of all surviving collections of Anglo-Saxon laws, from the conversion of King Aethelberht of Kent to the coronation charter of King Henry I of 1100.

The second part is the oldest and most precious of the cathedral registers. It can best be described as a memorandum book, created for ease of reference and security. Both parts were compiled in part from individual or single sheet original documents or exemplars, many now lost, in part from the collective memory of the cathedral community.

Dr. Patrick Wormald of Oxford is more explicit and humorous in his explanation of the purpose of the book. He says of the Textus Roffensis: it would have made an impressive weapon for a churchman seeking to defend the position of his English foundation against prowling Norman predators, compiled as it was soon after the Norman Conquest.

The compilation represents the first documentary evidence of the compromises made between the new Norman rulers and their indigenous English subjects, hinting at a convergence rather than a collision between the English language and English laws on the one hand and Romance laws and language on the other.

The book contains two foundation charters of Rochester Cathedral and Diocese of 604 (DRc/R1 f.119 recto - f.119 verso and DRc/R1 f.177 recto), two pre-Conquest and pre-Domesday Book lists of Kent parishes and copies of the earliest English law codes to survive (contained in part i of the book, i.e. the first of the two separate books prior to their being bound together)

The book would have been placed on the high altar in the presbytery, or stored very near by, not in the nave as some scholars have supposed. The first suggestion that it was known as a Textus comes from the enigmatic mid-thirteenth-century (Brett) or fourteenth century (Flight) note as quoted above *, which is long after its compilation. The term Textus signifies a book with an ornamented or decorated cover of the kind kept in the church rather than the cloister thus differentiating the volume from a liber de claustro Roffensi or book from the cloister of Rochester. The title is sometimes erroneously taken to mean a text concerning the church of Rochester.

It was highly unusual for a non-sacred book to be accorded such status, evidence of the politico-religious importance attached to its mainly secular content.

Compilation

The compilation dates from the episcopate of Ernulf of Bec (1115-1124) and more specifically from the period 1122-1123 (Hough, 2001) or 1123-1124 (Wormald, 2001). At that time there was little distinction between the possessions of the priory and the bishopric, and the bishop lived in the priory buildings with the monks. Ernulf’s involvement is commemorated on the first folio.

Both parts were written by a single scribe. Flight surmises it was the prior of the day, Ordwine. Wormald suggests he was a trusted servant of Bishop Ernulf (talk transcript, 2004). Whoever he was, he was no ordinary scribe and possessed advanced scholarly and editorial powers and was responsible for seeking out and ordering as well as transcribing the book’s contents. Similarly, A. Campbell has stated the texts……when compared with the single sheets, inspire considerable confidence in the care, honesty, and accuracy of the scribe (1973).

Physical description.

The volume now contains 235 vellum leaves.

The main hand in both parts is an early twelfth century bookhand but a number of leaves, particularly in the second part, have been replaced, and there are also additions made down to the mid-fourteenth century in a variety of later hands, which mostly imitate the work of the first scribe with more or less success. Some of the dominant capitals are coloured but on the whole very little colour has been used. There is one fully illuminated capital letter, marking the beginning of the second part on f.119r. After the two parts were brought together they were foliated throughout except for ff. 234v-235v in arabic numerals and thus must have been foliated after c.1300, see below.

Nothing is known of the original bindings of the two parts while separated, but the new binding of c.1300 comprised wooden boards with a leather covering. This wooden binding almost certainly survived until the early eighteenth century as it was noted by Dr. John Harris, Prebendary of Rochester, who borrowed it (presumably just before it was rebound in 1718) for his History of Kent published in 1719.

On 21 December 1708 the Chapter meeting ordered the Dean to take the book to London for binding following a request for the loan of it to Dr. Edward Elstub [cf. Elstob] on security of £200 (DRc AC/5 p.55 recto). It is not certain the book was bound on that occasion but at some stage between 1708 and 1712 it was lent to Elstub as on 25 June 1712 the Chapter ordered him to return it (DRc AC/5 p.95 recto). The book was rebound in 1718 along with the Customale Roffense (DRc/R2) but as both were bound in Russia leather and only the latter retains its Russia leather cover, the present binding of the Textus Roffensis must be later. However, comparison with the Customale Roffense provides an indication of the appearance of the Textus Roffensis between 1718 and c.1750. That the present covering is not Mrs. Jane Steel's of 1718 (see below) is also confirmed by the absence of corners itemised in her bill. We may surmise that as the binding of the Customale Roffense is a conventional board and leather binding, Steel's rebinding of the Textus Roffensis was given the same treatment and was the occasion on which the medieval wooden boards were dispensed with. Harris' published reference to the wooden boards in 1719 therefore post-dates the rebinding by Steele and refers to the binding of the book whilst in his possession c.1716.

The cover was repaired by Charles Lamacraft in 1937.

Custodial history of the book

William Lambard had access to the Textus in 1573 and annotated several folios.

The first recorded removal of the book from the cathedral’s custody occurred in c.1631 when it appears to have been lent to Sir Henry Spelman (c.1564-1641) the antiquary, in London, for scholarly research. Spelman seems to have employed Thomas Somer, a clerk to Edward Robinson, Clerk of the Court of Chancery to privately transcribe the volume’s contents. At any rate, on completion of the task, the Dean and Chapter arranged for John Lorkin (alias Larkin), Prebendary, to collect the volume from Somer who delivered the book to Lorkin’s lodgings in London but finding the prebendary absent, left it in the hands of the landlord’s wife. Here began a sorry train of events.

Before Lorkin could lay his hands on the volume, a fellow lodger, Dr. Thomas Leonard, a physician of Canterbury, purchased the volume from the landlord’s wife or their servant, probably for the sum of 5 shillings. It took a legal action in the Court of Chancery for Dr. Leonard to surrender the book back into the Dean and Chapter’s custody in 1633.

During Dr. Leonard’s unauthorised custody of the book it was transcribed by Sir Edward Dering whose copy was the basis of Thomas Hearne’s published transcription of 1720. Dering like Lambard made numerous notes in the margins.

In the late 1650s or early 1660s the book was borrowed by Sir Roger Twisden who returned it safely in 1663. Hasted (History of Kent, 1782) believed the Chancery suit to have occurred after the Restoration but would appear to have confused Twisden’s borrowing of the book with its earlier unlawful alienation by Dr. Leonard.

It appears likely the book was loaned to Dr. Edward Elstub in 1708 for transcription by him and the infant prodigy James Smith. It was in the hands of Francis Atterbury, bishop of Rochester in 1717 (DRc AC5/5 pt.ii p.68) and loaned to Dr. John Harris in 1716 (whose History of Kent was published in 1719) (see DRc AC5 pt.ii pp.15-16). It seems the chapter supported Harris in a tussle with the Dean for its possession (DRc AC/5 part ii p.15)

Sometime between 1708 and 1718 the volume was accidentally immersed in either the River Thames or River Medway while being transported to or from London, to or from either Elstub or Harris (Harris, according to Hasted, in which case c.1716-c.1718). The immersion resulted in the margins of the vellum pages being slightly shrunk and stained by a white crystalline deposit. That the damage was limited may have been because of tight brass clasps connecting the wooden boards. The shrinkage and staining were successfully treated by Lamacraft in 1937.

Hasted describes the events thus: Since which they have been again in great danger of being deprived of it; for Dr. [John] Harris [DD FRS], having borrowed it for the use of his intended history of this county, sent it up to London by Water [cf. Rivers Thames and Medway], and the vessel being by the badness of the weather overset, this Mss. lay for some hours under water before it was discovered, which has somewhat damaged it. If accurate, this event can be dated to c.1716-c.1718.

The book is noted as having been returned and presented to the Chapter on 7 July 1719 after being new bound. It is also apparent from this entry (DRc AC/5 pt.iii p.34) that the proper or normal storage place of the book was the chapter room. The rebinding referred to is almost certainly that of Mrs. Jane Steel, whose bill was settled on 15 July 1718 (DRc FTv/54/10). It is thus obvious the book was absent between 1718 and 1719 perhaps being used by another borrower, most likely the bishop who seems to have prompted its repair, being named on Steel's bill, but the point to note is that the rebinding could have been the result of the water damage which can thus be dated to c.1716-1718 perhaps whilst being returned by Dr. Harris. The book was rebound by Steel along with the Customale Roffense (DRc/R2)

The book was borrowed for one year by Edmund Barrell (variously prebendary, vice-dean and treasurer of the cathedral and vicar of Boxley) by authorisation of the chapter on 25 November 1719 (DRc AC/5 pt.iii p.40), returned on 12 December 1719 (DRc AC/5 pt.iii p.47) and borrowed again by him on 27 January 1719/1720 (DRc AC/5 pt.iii p.47).

The Textus Roffensis was transcribed and published by Thomas Hearne in 1720 from a copy in the Surrenden library (cf. Sir Edward Dering), but as there are no papers extant relative to the recovery of the register in the seventeenth century, it cannot be determined whether the original was ever part of the Surrenden library. The register was also used extensively by John Thorpe in his compilation of the Registrum Roffense in 1769.

David Wilkins had access to the book for his Leges Anglo-Saxonicae published in 1721 and in the 19th. century further work was undertaken on the book by Richard Price, Benjamin Thorpe and Felix Liebermann.

The book was disbound for photography for Sawyer’s facsimiles published in 1957 and 1962.

Conservation work was undertaken by James Wayre at Canterbury Cathedral Archives in 1996.  The book was also photographed in its entirety in black and white, the prints being lodged with Rochester Cathedral Library and the negatives with Canterbury Cathedral Archives.

The book was fully digitally photographed in high resolution and colour for Medway Council in 2004 for publication in the CityArk Imagebase (click view images button above) and the binding and thirty pages (p.iii-4 recto, 31 verso - 32 recto, 49 verso - 50 recto, 53 verso - 56 recto, 95 verso - 97 recto, 110 verso - 111 recto, 118 verso - 119 recto, 166 verso -167 recto, 176 verso - 177 recto and 220 verso - 221 recto) were scanned at the British Library on 19 September 2007 following its winning of first place in the Turning the Pages 2 competition for local hidden treasures to be included in the British Library's Turning the Pages web site for three years, published on 23 January 2008.

No cover to cover translation of the Textus Roffensis is known to exist.

Bad staining occurs at ff.126v-127r. This appears to have been caused subsequent to the book's immersion in the River Thames and pre-Sawyer as it appears in his facsimile.

The book was deposited by the Dean and Chapter of Rochester at Kent Archives Office in Maidstone in 1969. Prompted by the creation of the more local Rochester upon Medway City Archives Office in 1990 the cathedral archives including the Textus Roffensis were transferred to Strood in 1992. This office was managed by employees of Kent County Council until 1998 when management and custody passed from Kent County Council to the new Unitary Authority (i.e. County Borough) and Archives Authority, Medway Council.

The English Language

The book contains the putative first record of the English language, in the form of the Laws of Ethelbert of c.604 but see also the foundation charters also of 604. The Laws of Ethelbert begin:

Godes feoh and ciricean xii gylde. Biscopes feoh xi gylde. Preostes feoh ix gylde. Diacones feoh vi gylde. Cleroces feoh iii gylde. Ciric frith ii gylde

(The property of God and of the church, twelvefold; a bishop's property, elevenfold; a priest's property, ninefold; a deacon's property, sixfold; a clerk's property, threefold; churchfrith, twofold) (translation Fordham University).

The English used in the constituent Old English books is the Jutish dialect of Old English. The Textus is important because it preserves this rarer dialect of English, West Saxon becoming the predominant literary dialect of Old English. The modern English language is derived successively from the Mercian and East Midland dialects.

The book is thus an important record of an emerging language and the earliest recorded Germanic language after Gothic, which became extinct, and the fourth oldest recorded European language, excluding Gothic, after Greek, Latin and Irish.

The Old English texts contained in the Textus Roffensis also represent the creation of a new alphabet, possibly the first vernacular alphabet after Greek and Latin, combining a Celtic variety of Latin characters, two Germanic runes named thorn and win and a third new letter comprising a modified d called eth.

English Law

The Laws of Ethelbert and the other Kentish laws of the seventh and eighth centuries are the earliest of their kind to survive and are the earliest law codes to be recorded in the vernacular, as against the Latin usage of the Roman Empire.

Dr. Patrick Wormald states: Aethelbert’s code is best seen as the law of the Cantwara; a signal that they had joined Franks and Romans in the ranks of civilized because law-abiding peoples. Aethelbert’s laws were largely accepted laws but the later law codes preserved in the book show how English law had developed into innovatory law. Wormald also states: more than any other legal manuscript, it was both memorial to the past and instrument of its adaptation in a new world.

Anglo-Saxon Historical Research

The Textus Roffensis is a crucial primary source for the history of the Anglo-Saxon period, the more so because the scribe was scholarly and accurate in selecting and copying from his originals.

Wormald states the book matters crucially for the study of Anglo-Saxon charters…because the second part of the MS is a cartulary containing three dozen pre-conquest documents.

A source for Ancient History

The law codes may provide an insight into the Barbarian peoples of northern Europe at the height of the Roman Empire as their customary origins may pre-date the Germanic settlement of Britain and therefore provide glimpses of customs and rituals referred to by Roman writers which are not otherwise contemporarily or disinterestedly recorded. This particularly applies to feud and blood money or compensation in money or in kind.

A Medieval Renaissance

The scribe of the Textus Roffensis is a striking exponent of a distinctive form of Caroline miniscule handwriting or bookhand that was developed at Canterbury and Rochester around 1100 and which became influential nationally.

The later foliation of the book is an early example of the use in English documents of Arabic numerals, which made a first tentative appearance on any scale in France in the thirteenth-century, but only became widespread in the fifteenth century. The Arabic foliation cannot be earlier than c.1300 and probably dates from c.1400 (Liebermann).

The Textus Roffensis defines a unique moment in English history, in which a mixed community of Anglo-Saxons and incoming Normans assembled the materials of the past of the ancient church in which they all served, associated them with the whole history of Christendom, and deployed them in defence of a profound reform of the life of the cathedral. (In 1077 the original secular foundation had been converted into a Benedictine regular foundation.)

The compilation of ancient English documents forming part of the Textus Roffensis itself represents a new self-conscious attempt at recording an English heritage, after the Norman Conquest. The incomers needed an effective guide to the law of King Edward (i.e. King Edward the Confessor) as the Conqueror and King Henry his son promised to observe it; incomer and native alike needed all the resources of the book to preserve their ancient rights and recent acquisitions.

The book, chiefly in the form of the law codes, also records an important stage in nation-building and one that influenced the constitutions of England, Great Britain, the United Kingdom, the United States of America and many Commonwealth countries.

Wormald explains this more eloquently: there is an at least indirect connection between the fact that England is today the world’s oldest continuously functioning state and that English is its most widely spoken language. Its language and law are the most enduring marks of Englishness, its main claims to anyone else’s attention. The history of both begins with Aethelbert.

The book may thus be considered as evidence of a 12th. Century and 13th. Century European renaissance that some historians consider to have anticipated the better known 15th. Century renaissance. Aside from its liturgical value and the cartulary in Part II, it also serves the dual purpose of preserving the main corpus of pre-Conquest English law codes that would not otherwise have survived intact and as self-conscious evidence of statehood.

Examples of documents included in the Textus Roffensis

The laws of King Ethelbert of Kent c.604
(DRc/R1 f.1 recto - f.3 verso)

Ethelbert was born c.560 and ruled c580 x c590-616.

The first two lines Dis syndon da domas de aethelbirht cyning asette on agustinus daege (these are the dooms [or laws] that King Ethelbert set in Augustine's days) were composed and added at the time of the compilation of the Textus Roffensis 1123 x 1124 and constitute the first example of the scribe’s many rubrications throughout the text. The rubrication acts as a useful heading and is evidence of the scribe’s editorial control over the whole compilation.

The mid-13th. Century footnote Text[us] de ecc[lesi]a Roff[en]si p[er] Ernulfu[m] ep[iscopu]m (The Book of the Church of Rochester through Ernulf, Bishop), attributes the compilation to the orders of Bishop Ernulf of Rochester. This note has lent itself to the document’s name (see above).

The words of the first 5 lines Godes feoh and ciricean xii gylde. Biscopes feoh xi gylde. Preostes feoh ix gylde. Diacones feoh vi gylde. Cleroces feoh iii gylde. Ciric frith ii gylde (The property of God and of the church, twelvefold; a bishop's property, elevenfold; a priest's property, ninefold; a deacon's property, sixfold; a clerk's property, threefold; churchfrith, twofold) are putatively the earliest surviving words of the English language.

The marginal notes were made by William Lambard in 1573 and Sir Edward Dering in 1632.

The Laws of Aethelbert of Kent of c 604 were entered up 1123 x 1124, They are immediately preceded by notes on Old English characters made by Elizabeth Elstob in 1712 and followed by the Laws of Hlothere and Eadric of Kent 673-c685, also entered up 1123 x 1124.

List of the Archbishops of Canterbury
(DRc/R1 f.110 verso)

This list is naturally the first of the lists of bishops of English dioceses contained in the Textus Roffensis, Canterbury having precedence as the primatial see.

The list begins with Augustine (Augustinus), appointed to Canterbury in 597 and extends to Walter (Walterus) in 1314. However, the main scribe’s hand is evident only down to Ralph (Rodulfus) (succeeded 1114) after whose name other hands have added to the list. This possibly helps date the principal compilation of the Textus Roffensis or at any rate Part 2 to 1123 or just before 1123 when William de Corbeil succeeded. This evidence is by no means determinate however as the list of bishops of Rochester in the main hand extends only to Godwin II who died c.950 with the inference that the main scribe used his discretion in including recent or current archbishops and bishops.

List of the Bishops of Rochester
(DRc/R1 f.111 recto)

This list has pride of place among the lists of bishops of the dioceses following the list of archbishops of Canterbury, beginning with Justus in 604 and ending with Hamo of Hythe in 1316. However as with the Canterbury list, the list was compiled by the main scribe only down to Godwin II who died c.1050 after whose name other hands have added to the list.

These two lists have proved crucial in dating the book. Note additional archbishops and bishops' names in later hands.

Grant of land to St. Andrew’s church at Rochester 28 April 604
(DRc/R1 f.119 recto - f.119 verso)

This page marks the beginning of Part II of the Textus Roffensis, the cartulary of Rochester Priory.

The illumination comprises the illuminated letter R of Regnante formed out of an angel and winged dragon coloured green, lake and vermilion and introduces the charter of King Aethelbert (or Ethelbert) of Kent granting land in Rochester to Bishop Justus and the church of St. Andrew. The charter seems to assume the church already exists. It should be noted the church did not become a priory until Archbishop Lanfranc instituted monks of the Benedictine order here in 1083, at which time Bishop Gundulf began his rebuilding and endowment programme. Down to that time, the church had been a college of lay clerks.

The document is dated 28 April by reference to the imperial Julian Calendar and to 604 by reference to the Indiction. Calculation by indiction was first used in imperial documents, though different forms of it were also used in ecclesiastical documents for centuries. The year of the Incarnation is not given in the document, but Bede places the consecration of Bishop Justus and the foundation of the diocese in 604.

The rubrication or heading was added by the main scribe in the 1120s and the marginalia by Sir Edward Dering in 1632.

The charter breaks into Old English to describe the boundaries of land in the south-western corner of the city granted by the king to the church, the area of the Roman fortress and the later medieval castle:

Fram suthgeate west and langes wealles oth north lanan to straete and sra east fram straete oth dodding hyrnan on gean brad geat

(From South Gate in the west and along the walls to North Lane, to the Street, and so east from Street to Doddinghern Lane and then to Broad Gate).

If the boundary clause is indeed very ancient, this document contains the first record of placenames or street names in the English language and the earliest firmly dated record of the English language. The Street is Watling Street i.e. Rochester High Street; Doddinghern [Lane] is now Boley Hill (formerly King’s Head Lane), in Rochester, see Gordon Ward MD FSA's map in Archaeologia Cantiana LXII 1949 p.38.

However, the document is in part at least a later forgery in common with many charters of the Anglo-Saxon period and was devised to give legal basis to rights not otherwise recorded.

The document is immediately preceded by a note of an inquisition made in 1199 concerning the debts of Rochester Priory.

Grant of land to St. Andrew’s church at Rochester 604
(DRc/R1 f.177 recto)

This document, recording the principal gifts to the church from its foundation to the grant made by King Henry I at the consecration of the new cathedral in 1130, is one of the early additions to the book. The date given, 600, is not accepted by historians. Justus was sent to England by Pope Gregory in 601 and ordained bishop of Rochester in 604.

The area of land conveyed by King Ethelbert is described thus: Omnem terram quae est a medu waie usque ad [?] orientalem portum civitatis in australi parte (All the land which is on the southern side from the Mead Way as far as the east gate of the City).

The land in question is thus the land upon which the church was built, see Gordon Ward MD FSA's map in Archaeologia Cantiana LXII 1949 p.38.

It should be noted that the street named as Mead Way on Ward's map is erroneous. The Latin medu waie in the original document is certainly the River Medway, not an earlier name for Northgate, formerly Pump Lane, as suggested by Ward. Thus an earlier translation by R.C. Fowler OBE BA FSA is correct (Victoria County History of Kent, volume ii p. 121 1926)

The entry represents at least the collective memory of the community at Rochester by the mid-twelfth century; if there had ever been a charter to record this early grant, it appears to have been long lost.

Coronation Charter or Institutiones of King Henry I, 1100
(DRc/R1 ff. 96 recto-97 verso)

This is the earliest document of its kind to survive, a promise made by a new king faced by dangerous enemies that he would govern according to good law. Its importance was underlined when Sir William Blackstone published his famed work Commentaries on the Laws of England between 1765 and 1769.

A version of King Henry’s charter was certainly known to the opponents of King John in 1215, and provided a very general precedent for the demands which were met (at least briefly) in Magna Carta of 1215, by which for the first time a king was constrained to acknowledge that he too was bound by the laws which he enforced on his subjects. In Statutes of the Realm published in 1810, Henry’s charter was deemed to outrank Magna Carta in importance.

The Rochester version of the charter, contained in the Textus Roffensis, is the earliest of the numerous surviving copies; the form is broadly that which seems to have been known to the barons in the months before the grant of Magna Carta. John’s opponents seem to have used a version not dissimilar to that in the Textus, but almost certainly one they found in an early-thirteenth-century copy of the Leges Londinienses.

In the charter Henry declared he had been made king by the common consent of the barons; forbade evil customs introduced by William the Conqueror, his father, or William Rufus, his brother; made the church free; abolished abuses of feudal relief, marriage and wardship; upheld allegiance to the king irrespective of traditional feudal lordships; instituted a reform of the coinage; agreed justice would be administered to those who had made or kept bad money; authorised the bequeathing of personal estates by will; agreed men who suffered forfeiture were no longer to be at the king’s mercy; agreed in return for supplying men and horses for the defence of the realm, knights were to be allowed their demesne lands free of tax; agreed peace was to be kept; reinstated the laws of Edward the Confessor as amended by William the Conqueror; and asserted the forests were to remain as they had been under William the Conqueror, with the agreement of the barons.

The document was witnessed by Bishop Gundulf. It is immediately preceded in the book by Bequeathing Form.

Service of Bridgework: list of personages, parishes and manors liable to repair Rochester Bridge, early 11th. century
(DRc/R1 f.166 verso)

This document probably constitutes a description of liabilities for the repair of Rochester Bridge. It is useful as a physical description of the partly English, partly Roman bridge of the period prior to the erection of the later medieval bridge completed in about 1398. However it could also be read as specifications for a proposed new bridge.

The Bridgework list was probably compiled in the first half of the 11th. century. The Textus Roffensis also contains a Latin copy of the original, written by the main scribe at the same time as this transcription in the 1120s (DRc/R1 f.164 verso).

The document was no doubt included in the Textus Roffensis because of the obligations for repair placed on the bishop and his parishes. In this latter regard, historians have used the list as a source for the origins and development of Kent parishes, in conjunction with the slightly later Domesday Book of 1087.

The document begins with the scribe’s rubrication: This is thaere bricce geweorc on hrovecaestre (This is the Bridgework at Rochester) and continues from the original source, the first clause of which states:

Her syndon genamad tha land the man hi of scale weorcan; Aerest thaere burge biscop fehth on thone earm to wercene tha land peran and threo gyrda to pilliane and iii sylla to lycanne, thaet is of Borcstealle and of Cucclestane and of Frinondesbyrig and of Stoce

(Here are named the lands from which the labour is due. First the bishop of the city undertakes to construct the land pier on the [eastern] arm and to plank three rods and to set in place 3 beams, that is from Borstal, Cuxton, Frindsbury and Stoke.)

The document is preceded by an unruled later 12th. Century addition.

List of churches receiving Holy Chrism from St. Andrew’s Church c.1080
(DRc/R1 ff.220 verso – 222 recto)

Holy Chrism was consecrated oil used in the rite of baptism. It was an old custom for the mother church to distribute chrism oil to the subordinate churches of the bishopric at Easter for which a fee of either sixpence or nine pence was charged, known as the Chrism Fee.

The list therefore served as an accounting record of the Chrism fees due from each church.

The list is important as it comprises a list of parishes and chapels nearly contemporary with the Domesday Book of 1087 and may even have been in use pre-Conquest (1066).

Additionally, the list supplies information on chapels and manors and the development of parish areas. For example, in addition to an entry for Frindsbury Church, Strood, Islingham and Thorndun are recorded as chapels of Frindsbury. This indicates that St. Nicholas’ Church Strood was a daughter church of Frindsbury and that the parish of Strood was carved out of Frindsbury.

The list begins with the scribe’s rubrication De numero ecclesiaru[m] Rofensis ep[iscop]at[us] et de redditib[us] q[u]os sing[u]l[a]e reddu[n]t quando accipiu[n]t s[an]ctu[m] crisma a mat[re] eccl[esi]a ep[iscop]at[us] (Concerning the number of churches of the bishopric of Rochester and the payments which they each make when they received the holy chrism from the Episcopal mother church)

The parishes mentioned on the first page include Tonbridge (Tonebrigga), Yalding (Ealdinga), Brenchley (Braencesle), Horsmonden (Horsbundenne), Pembury (Peppingeberia), Wateringbury (Wotringaberia), Cowden (Cudena), Aylesford (Aeilesford), East Malling (Meallingis), Ryarsh (Reiersce), Chatham (Caetham), Cuxton (Cuclestena), Penshurst (Pennes hurst), Ightam (Ehteham) and Lewisham (Leueseham).

Synopsis of contents

Part 1 is preceded by various miscellaneous notes added by much later hands.

p.i recto memoranda and notes in early modern hands

p.i verso list of Old English characters

p.ii recto Latin inscription pertaining to book's return to custody following a law suit 1633

p.ii verso palimpsest

p.iii recto transcription by Dr. John Harris of inscription found on the medieval wooden cover of book, as above 1633

p.iii verso a list of Old English characters by Elizabeth Elstob entered up in 1712

Part 1: Quedam instituta de legibus regum Anglorum (Some enactments from the laws of the kings of the English) (DRc/R1 f.58 recto) [translation Flight]

i.e. legal texts, law codes and regnal lists stemming from the kingdoms of the English Heptarchy, England

ff.1 recto- 3 verso: Ethelbert [cf. Aethelbert] king of Kent [commencing Dis syndon da domas de aethelbirht cyning asette on agustinus daege (transliteration Morris/Sawyer) ( these are the dooms [or laws] that King Ethelbert fixed in Augustine's days) (translation Fordham University.)] It should be noted modern scholars (Hough, Richards and Wormald) suggest this heading to be a later rubrication prefaced by the scribe to the text of the original document from which he copied. (For a 35mm colour slide/transparency see collection M51)
ff.3 verso-5 recto: Hlothere [cf. Lother/Lothair] and Eadric [cf. Edric], kings of Kent
ff.5 recto-6 verso: Wihtred [cf. Wightred], king of Kent
f.7 recto-verso: Hadbot [cf. Hadbote/had; compensation for affront or injury to a person in holy orders, see The Oxford English Dictionary edited by J.A.H. Murray [etc.] 1970, Archives library]
ff.7 verso-8 verso: West Saxon (Wessex) regnal table i.e. list of kings of Wessex
ff.9 recto-31 verso: Alfred [cf. Aelfred] (ff.11 recto- 24 verso) and Ine (ff.24 verso-31 verso), kings of Wessex;
ff.31 verso-32 recto: be blaserum (About Arsonists) and Forfang [rescue of stolen money or reward for rescuing stolen money]
f.32 recto-verso: Ordeal (cf. Ordal)
f.32 verso: Walreaf (despoiling the dead) [cf. Wealreaf, Weilreif, Walaraupa, A Treatise of Gavelkind [etc.], William Somner, 1660]
ff.32 verso-37 recto: II King Athelstan [cf. Aethelstan]
ff.37 recto-38 recto: V King Athelstan [cf. Athelstan]
f.38 recto: IV King Athelstan [cf. Aethelstan]
f.38 recto: Pax [i.e. the king’s peace]
ff.38 verso-39 verso: Swerian [i.e. oath forms]
f.38 verso: f.39 verso: Mirca Laga (Of Mercian Law)
ff.40-41: Laws of Edward [cf. Eadward] the Elder, king of England and Guthrum (or Aethelstan/Athelstan), king of the Dane-Law +; after c.901;
ff.41 verso-42 recto: Wergeld the price set upon a man according to his rank, paid by way of compensation or fine in cases of homicide and certain other crimes to free the offender from further obligation or punishment ( The Oxford English Dictionary, q.v. ); ff.42 recto-43 recto: I King Edward
ff.43 recto-44 recto: II King Edward
ff.44 recto-45 recto: I King Edmund
ff.45 recto-46 recto: II King Edmund
ff.46 recto-47 recto: I King Ethelred
f.47 recto-verso: King William I, On Exculpation
ff.48 recto-49 verso: III King Ethelred
ff.49 verso-57 recto: Iudicia Dei I_III i.e. the judgment of God, comprising Exorcismus-aquae (f.49 verso), Exorcismus-ferri (f.53 verso) and Exorcismus-panis (ff.55 verso -56 recto) i.e. the ceremonies of ordeal by red-hot iron, boiling water, immersion in water or by barley bread and cheese
f.57 verso: Canute, king of England, Charter for Christ Church, Canterbury
ff.58 recto-80 recto: Instituta Cnuti, I II III
ff.80 recto-81 verso: III King William I, Ten Articles
ff.81 verso-87 recto: Exceptiones, ex decretis pontificum, quales accusatores
ff.88 recto-93 recto: VI King Athelstan
f.93 verso- 94 recto Northleoda laga (Of the North people's law)
ff.93 verso-94 recto: Wergeld
ff.94 verso-95 recto: On betrothal/wedding
f.95 recto: charm against theft
f.95 recto-verso: Bequeathing form
ff. 96 recto-97 verso: King Henry I; Institutiones henrici regis
ff.98 recto - 100 recto: Excommunication
f.101 recto-verso: West Saxon [i.e. Wessex] genealogy
ff. 102 recto-104 recto: English royal genealogies, Adam to Edward Ironside (f.101 recto), Northumbria (f.102 recto), Mercia (f.102 recto), Kent (f.103 recto), Wessex (f.103 verso)
ff. 105 recto-116 recto: lists of popes, Roman++ emperors f.107 verso), oriental patriarchs [i.e. of Jerusalem [Palestine/Israel] (f.107 verso), Alexandria [Egypt] (f.109 recto) and Antiocha/Antioch [Syria] (f.109 verso)), and of English archbishops and bishops (ff.110 verso-116 recto) (Canterbury f.110v., Rochester f.111r.)
f.116 verso: a list of popes, seven archangels
f.117 recto: concerning pope Celestine
f.118 verso: note of an inquisition made in 1199 concerning debts of Rochester Priory.

Part 2: Incipiunt privilegia aecclesiae sancti andreae hrofensis concessa a tempore ethilberhti regis, qui fide christiana a beato augustino suscepta, eandem ecclesiam construi fecit (Privileges granted to the church of Saint Andrew of Rochester, from the time of king Aethelbert onwards, who, converted to the Christian faith by Saint Augustine, caused this church to be built) (DRc/R1 f.119 recto) [translation Flight]

i.e. cartulary of Rochester Cathedral Priory

Part 2 begins with an illuminated letter R formed out of an angel and winged dragon coloured green, lake and vermilion.

ff.119 recto-222 recto: cartulary, here partly summarised:

[604]
King Aethelberht [cf. Ethelbert] I of Kent to St. Andrew's Priory, Rochester of land in south-western part of the city, f.119. For an image of folio 119 recto, please click here

738
King Eadberht [cf. Edbert, Eadbert] of Kent to St. Andrew's Priory, Rochester ff119-120

762 Actually 747
King Eardwulf of Kent to St. Andrew's Priory, Rochester f123

762 King Sigered of Kent to Bishop Eardwulf of Rochester ff122-123;

764
King Offa of Mercia to Bishop Eardwulf of Rochester ff123-125;

765
King Ecgberht [cf. Egbert] of Kent to Bishop Eardwulf of Rochester confirmed by Heaberht of Kent and Offa of Mercia ff126-127;

761 x 764
Sigered, king of half Kent to Bishop Eardwulf of Rochester; confirmed by Eanmund of Kent ff125-126

778
King Ecgberht [cf. Egbert] of Kent to Bishop Deora of Rochester ff129-130;

779
King Ecgberht [cf. Egbert] II of Kent to bishop Deora f130

781 Actually 860-866
King Aethelberht [cf. Ethelbert] of Wessex to Bishop Deora of Rochester ff130-131

788
King Offa of Mercia to St. Andrew's Priory and Bishopric of Rochester ff131-132;

789
King Offa of Mercia to Bishop Waermund of Rochester ff133-134

789
King Offa of Mercia to Bishop Waermund and church at Rochester ff132-133;

801
King Coenwulf of Mercia and Cuthred of Kent to Swithlun ff135-136

811
King Coenwulf of Mercia to Bishop Beornmod of Rochester ff136-137

823
King Ecgberht [cf. Egbert] of Wessex to St. Andrew's Priory, Rochester ff137-138

838
King Ecgberht [cf. Egbert] of Wessex to Bishop Beornmod of Rochester ff138-139

841
King Aethelwulf [cf. Ethelwulf] of Wessex to Bishop Beornmod of Rochester f139

855
King Aethelwulf [cf. Ethelwulf] of Wessex to his minister Dunn; with Dunn's will ff139-140

860 & 790; actually c.975
King Aethelberht [cf. Ethelbert] of Wessex to Bishop Waermund of Rochester ff134-135
868

King Aethelred [cf. Ethelred] I of Wessex to Cuthwulf, Bishop of Rochester ff140-141

880
King Aethelwulf [cf. Ethelwulf] of Wessex to St. Andrew's Priory and Bishop Swithwulf ff141-142
942x946

King Eadmund [cf. Edmund] I (of Wessex) to Bishop Burhic of Rochester ff143-144

955
King Eadgar [cf. Edgar] of Wessex to St. Andrew's Priory ff150v-152

995 King Aethelred [cf. Ethelred] II to see of Rochester ff152-155

998 King Aethelred [cf. Ethelred] II to see of Rochester ff156-159

1012
King Aethelred [cf. Ethelred] II to Bishop Godwine (cf. Godwin) of Rochester ff159-162

[ff.163-221: here are charters and other documents mainly post-Conquest

including ff164v-167r list of persons and parishes liable for the repair of Rochester Bridge (Old English), an account of a trial on Penenden Heath, ff.168 recto-170 verso (Latin) and a list of churches and chapels in the diocese of Rochester liable to pay Rochester Cathedral a fee for receiving Holy Chrism or consecrated oil at Easter ff.220v-222r (written c.1115 but thought to have been composed c.1089 and possibly in use pre-Conquest); also including charter of King Ethelbert to St. Andrew's Church of land in south-eastern part of city 600 [actually 604] [forged] (f.177 recto)

ff.222 recto-223 verso: list of offices, masses etc. that ought to be said for members of religious houses in confraternity with Rochester

ff.224 recto-229 verso, 230 recto: lists/catalogue/inventory of books in Rochester Cathedral Priory Library [f.228 recto, line 1, mentions the first part (i.e. the laws) of the present Textus Roffensis as above

ff.232 verso-235: assize of ward of King Edward III

a version of the Domesday account of the Rochester fief, ff.209 recto-210 recto;

benefactions, mainly royal, 8th. Century - King William II, ff.215 recto-216 recto;

a list of knights, f.217 recto;

confirmations of privileges by archbishops of Canterbury William [Corbois/Corbyl] and Theobald, ff.203 recto, 204 verso-222 recto;

a judgment by Imar of Tusculum [cf. Frascati, near Rome, Italy] ff.203 verso-204 recto;

copy of a bull of Pope Eugenius III of 1146, ff.206 recto-208 recto.]

The above list has been compiled from Sawyer (Part 1) pp.15-18 and from Liebermann Archaeologia Cantiana volume xxiii (1898) p.112.

[+ cf. Denmark; Northumbria, Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Rutland, Norfolk, Suffolk, Northamptonshire, Huntingdonshire, Cambridgeshire, Bedfordshire, Hertfordshire and Essex]
[++ cf. Rome, Italy]

Notes, general.

The original document (DRc/R1) is not produced. Instead, facsimiles of various kinds are made available, from which any reprographic work is undertaken. The following is a list of facsimile sources or secondary sources relating to the Textus Roffensis. This list is not intended to be exhaustive.

Microfilm MF411 (searchroom duplicate).

Microfilm copy also held by University Microfilms, Annarbor, Michigan, United States of America

The book was digitally photographed in high resolution colour on 2 June 2004 by Ian Booth of Medway City Estate . These images (jpegs) are available here on Cityark- see Imagebase.

Notes, bibliographical

Fordham University website translations of Old English Laws or Dooms click here

Printed book Textus Roffensis facsimile, edited by P. Sawyer 1957, 1962 2 volumes, i.e. Parts I & II, Local Studies collection, Medway Archives and Local Studies Centre ref. qROC283

Printed book Textus Roffensis edited by Thomas Hearne [q.v.], 1720, containing a transcription and translation of the original Anglo-Saxon text (DRc/R1 chapters 81-82) describing and concerning Rochester Bridge (at pp.379-383), Local Studies collection, Medway Archives and Local Studies Centre ref. ROC283Y

Printed book entitled An Historical Account of that Venerable Monument of Antiquity the Textus Roffensis; including Memoirs of the Learned Saxonists Mr. William Elstub and his sister [Elizabeth] by Samuel Pegge MA 1784 ref. qROC091 Pegge

Printed booklet entitled Rochester Cathedral Library: its Fortunes and Adventures through Nine Centuries W.H. Mackean, canon and librarian, 1953

The Local Studies Unit, Medway Archives and Local Studies Centre has a set of glass plate negatives (formerly held at the Guildhall Museum) comprising a partial copy of the Textus Roffensis, ref. Box 1B negatives 3097-3105 and Box 1D negatives 3110-3144

Printed book Textus Roffensis and Customale Roffensis by H. Pratt Boorman, Kent Life March 1974, Local Studies collection, Medway Archives and Local Studies Centre

Printed booklet entitled The First Code of English Law (originally a lecture given at Canterbury Cathedral Archives under the title King Aethelberht of the Kent-people and the First English Code of Law) by Dr. Patrick Wormald, published by the Canterbury Commemoration Society, 2005, Medway Archives and Local Studies Centre

Article entitled The Textus Roffensis in Chancery AD1633 contained in Archaeologia Cantiana XXX 1914 pp.225-232 by A.A. Arnold, 1913 Local Studies collection Medway Archives and Local Studies Centre

Printed book The Laws of the Earliest English Kings F.L. Attenborough, 1922

Printed book The Making of English Law: King Alfred to the Twelfth Century - Volume I Legislation and its Limits Patrick Wormald 2001

Printed book The Beginnings of English Law L. Oliver, 2002

Printed article The List of Saxon Churches in the Textus Roffensis by G. Ward MD FSA Archaeologia Cantiana volume XLIV pp.39-59 1932

Printed book The History of Kent by J. Harris (q.v.) 1719: containing also a transcription and translation from the Anglo-Saxon text describing and concerning Rochester Bridge (at pp.260-261), Local Studies collection, Medway Archives and Local Studies Centre, ref. Y942HAR

Printed book A perambulation of Kent [etc.] by William Lambarde, first published 1576; reprinted 1826. Also containing a transcription and translation of the Anglo-Saxon text describing and concerning Rochester Bridge, (at pp. 347-352). Local Studies collection, Medway Archives and Local Studies Centre, ref. Y942LAM;

Printed book Diocesan Histories: Rochester by Rev. A.I. Pearman MA 1897 (ROC283)

Printed book The Bishops and Monks of Rochester 1076-1214 by Colin Flight, no. vi in monograph series, Kent Archaeological Society, 1997, copy in local studies collections at this centre, ref. ROC283FLI. This book, chapter 2, pp.17 et seq. includes information on the title of the document and a description of the document's composition.

The Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England click here

Off-print of article entitled Palaeographical evidence for the compilation of Textus Roffensis by Dr. Carole A. Hough of the Department of English Language, Glasgow University, published in Scriptorium: international revue of manuscript studies Tome LV 2001,1 Archives Library OA/LIB/358

File updated by Borough Archivist, Medway Council 28 January 2008. Updated Nov 2014 by Archivist, Medway Council.


Date: 12th.-14th. centuries
Quantity: 1 volume 9 1/2" x 7" x 2 1/4" (240mm x 175mm x 55mm)
Result number 22 - Please quote Reference: P296_RAINHAM_1517_1987/P296_06A_02_17 on request slip.

Path: Ecclesiastical_Rochester_Archdeaconry_Area_Parishes/ P296_RAINHAM_1517_1987/ 02_ADDITIONAL_DEPOSIT_1864_1987/ 06_CHURCHWARDENS_Property_1897_1976/ P296_06A_02_17.html

Rainham parish church

Churchwardens, property records

Chancel 1931 - 1951

Photographs of cartoons for, or of executed designs of, stained glass windows by Francis H. Spear, ARCA, FRSA, “Fernbeech”, Reigate, Surrey and 47 Lansdowne Road, Stanmore, Middlesex N4, presumably used as guides to proposed restoration of Rainham church chancel.

Each measures c.8.5” x c.6” - Black & white.

Out county: detail east window, Long Marston Church, Tring, Hertfordshire.

File updated by Borough Archivist 25 September 2001.

Date: No date
Quantity: 1 document
Result number 23 - Please quote Reference: P296_RAINHAM_1517_1987/P296_06A_02_18 on request slip.

Path: Ecclesiastical_Rochester_Archdeaconry_Area_Parishes/ P296_RAINHAM_1517_1987/ 02_ADDITIONAL_DEPOSIT_1864_1987/ 06_CHURCHWARDENS_Property_1897_1976/ P296_06A_02_18.html

Rainham parish church

Churchwardens, property records

Chancel 1931 - 1951

Photographs of cartoons for, or of executed designs of, stained glass windows by Francis H. Spear, ARCA, FRSA, “Fernbeech”, Reigate, Surrey and 47 Lansdowne Road, Stanmore, Middlesex N4, presumably used as guides to proposed restoration of Rainham church chancel.

Each measures c.8.5” x c.6” - Black & white.

Out county: design for east window, Long Marston Church, Tring, Hertfordshire. Designed 1937 or 1938; executed 1938-1948

File updated by Borough Archivist 25 September 2001.

Date: No date
Quantity: 1 document
Result number 24 - Please quote Reference: P296_RAINHAM_1517_1987/P296_27F_01 on request slip.

Path: Ecclesiastical_Rochester_Archdeaconry_Area_Parishes/ P296_RAINHAM_1517_1987/ 02_ADDITIONAL_DEPOSIT_1864_1987/ 27_TITHE_1925_1929/ P296_27F_01.html

Rainham parish records.

Tithes.

Correspondence between J.A. Springate of 23 London Road, Rainham and J.C. Coomber of "The Myrtles", Century Road, Rainham and F.R. Allen of Surrenden Dering Estate, 19 St. Margaret's Street, Canterbury, Arthur MacDonald of Tring, Hertfordshire, tithe agent and others, concerning tithe redempton, tithe rent charge and Impropriate tithe, giving field numbers.

[DE77]

File updated by Borough Archivist 2 October 2001.

Date: 1925-1929
Quantity: 1 bundle/11pp.
Result number 25 - Please quote Reference: Chatham_Borough_Council_1890_1974/01_Intro on request slip.

Path: Local_Government_Authorities_1227_Date/ Chatham_Borough_Council_1890_1974/ 05_Borough_Engineer_and_Surveyor/ Building_Registers_and_Plans_1848_1948/ 01_Intro.html

Medway Archives and Local Studies Centre

CBA/BPR AND CBA/BP CHATHAM BOARD OF HEALTH AND CHATHAM BOROUGH COUNCIL BUILDING PLAN REGISTERS 1857-1974 AND BUILDING PLANS 1857-1948

[To view a full list of this collection, please click here]

Unless otherwise stated, these records were transferred from the Guildhall Museum, City of Rochester Upon Medway in 1989.

Accession MR29 [part] transferred from Building Control Section, Technical Department, Rochester upon Medway City Council 26 September 1991.

Accession MR33 [part] transferred from Limbo, New Depot, by Chief Executive's Support Team, Chief Executive's Department, Rochester Upon Medway City Council 15 October 1991.

INTRODUCTION

Historical Background

The records in this collection comprise building plans (specifically architects and builders' drawings, elevations, sections, plans, block plans, site plans and estate plans) submitted to Chatham Local Board of Health 1848-1890 and Chatham Borough Council 1890-1948 for the approval of new buildings or additions or alterations to existing buildings, including water closets, plumbing, drainage, stables and later garages, together with the building plan registers that comprise the original working finding aids to the plans.

Under the terms of the Public Health Acts and Building Regulations, Sanitary Authorities such as Chatham Local Board of Health, formed in 1848, or corporations such as Chatham Borough Council, incorporated in 1890, had to scrutinise and approve plans of intended building operations, to ensure legal provision of sanitary and drainage facilities to prevent outbreaks of disease and to ensure a safe standard of building.

The building plans for Chatham cover the years 1848-1948. Regrettably, plans do not survive after 1948 probably because of microfilming followed by destruction at the time of relocating the parent department from Maidstone Road, Rochester to the Civic Centre, Strood c.1988 consequent on the local government reorganisation and amalgamations of 1974.

The Finding Aids to the Chatham Building Plans

The building plans (CBA/BP/1-n) are arranged in chronological and numerical order according to date deposited with the authority. The building plan number for a specific building must be quoted before it can be produced for research. To obtain the number, reference must be made to the building plan registers (CBA/BPR/1-n), which are arranged in accordance with the plans, or to the authorities' minute books, or to the informal street guides to building plans (CBA/BPR/1-4).

Information contained in the Plan Registers

The format varies but is usually as follows, left to right in columns:

1. Plan number
2. Description of building operations, e.g. stable.
3. Address of building operations, e.g. High Street.
4. Name and address of depositor (usually builder or architect).
5. Whether approved/rejected/comments.

Recommended preparatory work for researching building plans

Prior to your visit, you should ascertain the date of building (or alteration, addition, rebuilding, etc.). Accurate or rough dating is essential to avoid a lengthy search.
Study maps, trade directories, poll books, electoral registers or rate books (many held at this centre) to check existence of address down to or during the period covered by the building plans (1848-1948).
Enquire for the deeds to the property with current owners, solicitors, building societies or at this office. Deeds may indicate the age of the property or include a plan, especially after 1925.

Step 2: How to Locate Specific Building Plans

Request the plan register covering the date required, e.g. CBA/BPR/2, using the lists below, and request slips provided.
Turn to the first page in the register for that date.
Scan the address column from top to bottom, page by page, until you find your building.
Read off the plan number (usually in left hand column) against entry in address column or description of building operations column.

Requesting Building Plans

Request the plan by completing a slip provided from the holder on your document table with full collection reference and plan number e.g. CBA/BP/4021.

Missing Plans

Prior to deposit in the archives, the building plans series was held in the council department that administered building control. In the course of their routine administrative work, officers removed some plans and did not replace them.

Other plans appear to be missing but have been bundled together with earlier, or more usually later, plans relating to building operations on the same premises for convenience of reference. (Likewise this was as expedient of the administering department). A search may therefore have to be made through several decades of entries in the registers to locate such alternative plan numbers. As mentioned above, the street guides, which may band together several decades worth of plans to premises in a street under one heading, may alleviate this problem of dispersal (CBA/BPR/1-4).

Limitations of the building plans and notes on alternative plans sources

The Chatham building plans date from 1848, but this does not necessarily mean that searchers will be disappointed if seeking plans of buildings erected prior to 1857. Plans after 1857 may include alterations or additions to pre-1857 structures including old buildings (see above).

Goad insurance plans, held at libraries including Medway Archives and Local Studies Centre or available from the company, Charles E. Goad Ltd., Old Hatfield, Hertfordshire.

Large scale Ordnance Survey maps, available from the Planning and Transport Department, Compass Centre, Chatham Maritime, and the Centre for Kentish Studies, local libraries or this office.

Plans in deeds (especially after 1925). Available via place/street index or lists in this office or in solicitor's offices, building societies or with property owners.

HM Land Registry, Tunbridge Wells, Kent.

Photographs of Chatham buildings held at the Guildhall Museum, High Street, Rochester for which application should be made to the Head of Heritage or curator (01634 848717) or in the Local Studies collection at this centre.

Chatham Borough Council Engineer and Surveyor's Department handlist of ages of houses arranged by street available at this Centre on application.

City Archivist June 1992
Edited for CityArk Phase II November 1999 Borough Archivist.

Re-edited by Borough Archivist, Medway Council 25 August 2000.

Date: N/A
Quantity: N/A
Text version | Accessibility help | Home