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Result number 1 - Please quote Reference: 07_M_SERIES/M028 on request slip.

Path: Accessions/ 07_M_SERIES/ M028.html

Photocopy of printed roll of honour of British Portland Cement Manufacturers Ltd., mainly for the Peters & West Kent Works, Wouldham, but also including the Newhaven Works, Sussex and Premier Works, Irthlingborough, Northamptonshire, giving name, rank and unit of former employee or worker & date killed if applicable, First World War c.1914-c.1918 (M28/1) and photocopy of Overseers of the Poor accounts for Halling 1830 (M28/2)
Date: Originals c.1919 and 1830; photocopies 1993
Quantity: 1 bundle/8pp.
Result number 2 - Please quote Reference: 08_MEDWAY_COUNCIL_MTC_MR_SERIES/MTC_MR_117 on request slip.

Path: Accessions/ 08_MEDWAY_COUNCIL_MTC_MR_SERIES/ MTC_MR_117.html

Records comprising part of the collection of the former Gillingham Urban Heritage Centre, Napier Road School, Gillingham and donated to Medway Council by Mr. Ronald A. Baldwin of 36 Stuart Road, Gillingham, local historian, transferred by assistant curator, Guildhall Museum, High Street, Rochester, Libraries, Archives and Museums Section, Leisure Division, Education and Leisure Directorate, Medway Council, comprising:

Honorary testimonial awarded by Royal Humane Society to Lance Corporal Charles French, 2nd. Company, Royal Engineers, for saving life of Sidney Smith in River Nene at Aldwinkle (Aldwinckle), Northamptonshire on 1 September 1892, signed by Sir John Campbell KG KT, Duke of Argyll (president), J.W. Home (secretary) and Captain A.B. Hawes (treasurer), 16 January 1893 (1 membrane);

School and musical certificates awarded to Miss Frances French 1912-1945, with hand tinted studio photograph of unknown woman, with Japanese * or Chinese * characters on rear, c.1890 (1 bundle/19 sheets, paper)

Sheaf of notes by Ronald Baldwin pertaining to above items and others not present, c.1980 [* cf. Japan and China]

Call number: MTC/EL/LEI/LAMS/GM/2

Date: c.1890-1945
Quantity: 1 portfolio
Result number 3 - Please quote Reference: Church_of_England_Historical_Information/List_of_Deans_of_Rochester_1533_Date on request slip.

Path: Ecclesiastical_Regular_and_Capitular_Foundations/ Church_of_England_Historical_Information/ List_of_Deans_of_Rochester_1533_Date.html

Records of the Dean and Chapter of Rochester: historical information pertaining

List of the Deans of Rochester

1533 Walter Phillips [cf. Philippes, Philips, Phyllyppes, Phylyppes, Phylippes, Phillippes, Philyppes, Philypes], 18 June; last prior and first dean; died 1570
1570 Edmund Freake [cf. Freke], 10 April; bishop of Rochester 9 May 1571
1574 Thomas Willoughby [cf. Wollowbie, Willobie, Wilughby, Willowghby, Willowghbye, Willoughbie], 23 June; died 19 August 1585
1585 John Coldwell, 7 January; bishop of Salisbury [Wiltshire], 26 December 1591
1592 Thomas Blague 1 February; died October 1611
1611 Richard Milbourne 11 December; bishop of St. David’s [Pembroke, Wales] 9 July 1615
1615 Robert Scott 13 July; died December 1620
1620 Godfrey Goodman 6 January; bishop of Gloucester [Gloucestershire] 6 March 1624
1624 Walter Bancanqual [cf. Balcanqual] 12 March; dean of Durham 1638
1638 Henry King 6 February; bishop of Chichester [Sussex] 16 February 1641
1641 Thomas Turner 26 February; dean of Canterbury 1643
1660 Benjamin Laney 24 July; bishop of Peterborough [Northamptonshire], same year
1660 Nathaniel Hardy 10 December; died 1 June 1670
1670 Peter Mew, bishop of Bath and Wells [Somerset] 1672
1673 Thomas Lamplugh 6 March; bishop of Exeter [Devon] 12 November 1676
1676 John Castillion 15 November; died 21 October 1688
1689 Henry Ullock; died 20 June 1706
1706 Samuel Pratt [cf. Prat]; died 14 November 1723
1724 Nicholas Clagett 4 January; bishop of St. David’s, [Pembroke, Wales] January 1731
1731 Thomas Herring; bishop of Bangor [Carnarvon, Wales] 1737
1743 William Bernard; bishop of Raphoe [Donegal, Ireland] 1744
1744 John Newcombe; died 10 March 1765
1765 William Markham, dean of Christchurch [Oxford, Oxfordshire] 1767
1775 Thomas Thurlow 8 November; bishop of Lincoln [Lincolnshire] 1779
1782 Thomas Dampier; bishop of Rochester 1802
1802 Samuel Goodenough; bishop of Carlisle [Cumberland] 1808
1808 William Beaumont Busby 15 March
1820 Robert Stevens 17 October
1870 Thomas Dale 23 February; died 14 May 1870;
1870 Robert Scott 16 June
1887 Samuel Reynolds Hole 31 December; died 1904
1905 Ernald Lane
1913 John Storrs
1928 Reginald Thomas Talbot
1932 Francis Underhill
1937 Ernest Morell Blackie
1943 Thomas Crick
1959 Robert William Stannard
1966 Stanley Woodley Betts
1978 John Robert Arnold
1990 Edward Frank Shotter

Sources:
Haydn’s Book of Dignities 1894, reprinted 1969
Rochester Diocesan Directories
Kelly’s Directories

File updated by Borough Archivist, Medway Council 31 July 2001.

Date: N/A
Quantity: N/A
Result number 4 - Please quote Reference: DRc_Dean_and_Chapter_of_Rochester_Cathedral_1541_1994/DRc_Ac_02 on request slip.

Path: Ecclesiastical_Regular_and_Capitular_Foundations/ DRc_Dean_and_Chapter_of_Rochester_Cathedral_1541_1994/ BB01_Administrative_Records_1541_1968/ 04_DRc_Ac_Chapter_Minute_Books_1575_to_1968_NB_gaps/ DRc_Ac_02.html

Dean and Chapter of Rochester

Chapter Book I nos. 1-6

One volume made up of seven small books bound together. Each book is separately paginated or foliated.

1. 31 December 1678 - 19 August 1679 Pp. 1-80.
2. 1 October 1679 - 25 October 1679 Ff. 1-21.
3. 25 November 1679 - 30 March 1680 Ff. 1-47.
4a 8 June 1680 - 2 February 1681 Ff. 1-58.
4b 2 June 1681 - 2 November 1681 Ff. 1-20.
5. 24 November 1681 - 1 April 1682 Pp. 1-78.
6. 13 June 1682 - 2 June 1684 Ff. 1-108.
Indexed.

On the cover of 4a. is a note that it had been missing for several years but was found in 1741 (among Papers formerly belonging to Mr. Cromp [cf. Crumpe, Crompe]), by Mr. Henry Sheafe and was delivered by Him to Me E[dmund] B[arrell] [i.e. Edmund Barrell] and by me to the Dean and Chapter. There are rough notes on the final four pages referring to various events between 1680-1684.

DRc/Ac 2/1 St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, Rochester: rights of the Dean and prebendaries as to the disposal of patronage, 25, 48-50;

St. Bartholomew’s Hospital: Knight's Charity disposal of money collected at services to poor widows, 15.

Bell, recasting of Great, 66.

Choir seating: 79-80.

Dean's Orchard: dispute between the Dean and prebendaries over the actual ownership of the orchard and secondarily whether the prebendaries had any right or not, without the Dean's consent, 19-32, 35, 53.

Election of Chapter Officers: 74.

Haddenham manor, Buckinghamshire., financial state of, 73-4.

Library: gift of Anualium Mundi , 5; books borrowed, 74.

Minor Canons houses: 71, 72.

Pensions: 66.

Poor Relief: 71.

Precedence in choir seating: part relation of the disturbance caused by James Dixon who chose to sit on the Dean's side whereas he usually sat on the vice-dean's side, 79-80+.

+Part of the book may be missing as rhe relation ends in mid sentence.

Precinct: the removal of persons that shall come to seate themselves within the precincts of this Church and the prevention of their return, 71.

Procurators in Convocation: 57.

Rents: dicussion of actual rent payable to the king for Chapter estates with reference to the dotation of King Henry VIII, 53-56, 61.

Repairs: 66.

Residence of prebendaries: 32-38; suspension of Francis Durant de Breval for speaking petulantly to the Dean, not giving adequate warning of his absence, and refusing to accept his bond resealed, signed and delivered by the bishop, 56.

Salaries: complaints against the Dean by the prebendaries that he takes a full share of their arrears but not their debts; and received a full share of profits for 15 months whereas the prebendaries received not a penny of their salaries, 36-37, 40-47, 51, 53, 66, 76.

Southfleet: addition of manor to the dotation, 61.

DRc/Ac 2/2

Accounts: money paid over, 3, 21.

Agenda: 18.

Archdeacon' patent: registrar: Rupert Browne [cf. Brown] in place of John Crompe [cf. Cromp, Crumpe] 1679, 11a.

Choir: submission of James Dixon to Chapter order relating to seating in, 17.

Counsel: votes cast for Anthony Weldon 1679, 14a; sworn, 17a; oath, 17a; order to consult, about Mr. Mayne, 17.

[Manorial] Courts: order to pay Mr. Woodruffe for making up the [rolls], 11.

Dean's Orchard dispute: 3, 5, 14a, 15-15a; case transferred to Anthony Weldon on death of Francis Barrell, 20; papers relating to, 20, 21a.

Debts: alteration in payment of, to prebendaries mentioned, 13.

Episcopal patent: refusal to confirm patent of registrar granted to Rupert Browne; protest by John Stowell, present registrar, 11, 11a.

Fee Farm Rent: West Farleigh mill, 19.

Fines: 4.

Halling: augmentation due to vicar's administrators, 9.

Minor Canons: Mr. Fidge's petition granted. (Crossed out), 20a.

Organ: payment to [.....] Popely to encourage him to learn, 20.

Poor relief: allowance to Mrs. Heath, 7; from Communion money, 21; for burial of, 21a.

Prebendal house for Archdeacon: 5, 15.

Presentations:

Leatherhead, Surrey: Francis Durant de Breval's request for, and offer to resign if lessee dissatisfied, 14a;

Sutton [at Hone]: postponed, 18.

Procurator in Convocation: 1; votes cast for Francis Durant de Breval 1679, 13, 13a; declarations by the Dean and Archdeacon that they thought the Chapter should be represented by an Englishman and not a forrinar [i.e. foreigner], 13, 13a; fees paid to apparitor for bringing the citation, 7.

Records: Haddenham, Buckinghamshire lease and papers returned, 3.

School: repairs: bill for bricklaying to be speedily considered as Mr. Gamble is threatened to be arrested for the stuffe used about that worke , 11; staff: usher, resignation of Mr. Crew without leave 1679 1679, 9, 9a, 11; appointment of John Wyburne 1679, 21.

Steward: votes cast for James Dixon 1679, 14, 14a; sworn, 17a; oath, 17a.

Surveyor: Mr. Guy of Strood mentioned, 21a.

Surveys: order to survey houses leased before renewal, 1; report, 4, 5, 14; Dean's house and that part of the orchard not in dispute, 3; report on premises in Chatham High Street, 17; order to survey church, 21a.

Visitation: 6th injunction of 1662 to be sent to the bishop, 13.

DRc/Ac 2/3

Accounts: 8, 10, 11, 19.

Agenda: 3a, 4, 18a, 19, 35. Apprenticeship: Master's refusal to accept conditions, 15a.

Archdeacons patent: Registrar: Rupert Brown 1679, 7a.

Arrears, recovery of: 3a, 5a, 9, 28a-29.

Benefactors, list of: 17-17a.

Bounds: to be set around a wharf and quay in Maidstone, 34a.

Chatham: parish officials (named), 35.

Choristers: to be considered, 15.

DEAN AND CHAPTER OF ROCHESTER Dean's Orchard Dispute*:

15a, 19, 19a, 23, 23a, 24, 25, 26-17a; Archbishop of Canterbury's preference for the Chapter to be represented by an Englishman, 27, 28a-29, 30; letter to Bishop of Rochester from the Dean on Dr. Breval’s ill dealing and the differences between him and the prebendaries, 30-30a, 32, 33-35, 37a-38, 43a-47.

Debts:

9

Election of Officers:

1, 3a, 4a, 11, 24a; difficulties over Dr. Cooke's election as treasurer, 4a, 21, 24a.

Episcopal Patent: Diocesan registrar: threat by John Stowell, present registrar, to demand compensation if the Chapter confirms Rupert Brown's patent, 7; confirmed, 7a.

Exchequer, suit in:

Warrant (with correspondence) served on Dean and Chapter at suit of Richard May, 26-26a.

Fee Farm rents:

5, 10a, 11a-12.

Fine:

query, 13.

Hoo St. Werburgh:

Demand for tithes by late vicar's widow, 28.

Lay clerks:

proposals relating to placings, 15; petitions for, 4a.

Leases:

Memorandum on leasing. (See also DRc/E1b2 p.340), 10a.

Legal affairs:

26-27, 35-36.

Organist, apprentice:

14.

* This dispute inevitably became intermixed with others, notably those over St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, Rochester and salaries, hence there is a great deal about these also on the same pages.

Patentee: 40.

Pensions: Cuxton, 16a, 38; Crundale, 3a, 4, 10a; St. Margaret, Rochester, 10a.

Plumber: William Gimmett 1679, 17.

Poor relief:
Money for poor of St. Nicholas, Rochester, 27a; maintenance of Sarah Cooke, 7a, 14, 24a; maintenance of Mrs. Heath's child, 10, 18a, 23a; Henry Smith, 24a; 45a.

Prayers:
To begin at 3 p.m. from Michaelmas-Lady Day 1679, 49.

Precinct:
Enquiry into persons living there, 10; damage done by vehicles and refuse in, 24.

Presentations
Hoo, St. Werburgh: John Wren 1679, 43;
Leatherhead, Surrey: Robert Hansbury 1679, 16;
Sutton Valence: refusal to elect incumbent, 20.

Quitrents: 21.

Records:
Hadden lease, 4; delivery of court records written up, 6a,; enquiry after records in the possession of the late Mr. Barrell, 8, 21a; list of, brought in by Mr. Woodruffe which were put into the lower most drawer next the chynny , 21a; letters put in Mr. Crompe's [cf. Cromp, Crumpe] desk, 24; 1649 survey books borrowed by the Dean, 25a; sent to London, 27; returned with Martin Cotes Register, 27a; Statutae de Officio thesaurii sent to London, 27a; records returned, 28.

Repairs:
Cathedral, 12a, 14a, 28a-28a; paving of Lady Chapel, 15; Chapter house stairs, 15; money still owed the late Dr. Warner to be used for repair of his house, 9a, 21, 21a, 25; contribution towards repair and rebuilding of St. Paul’s Cathedral, London, 23a.

Rochester:
Survey of St. Margaret’s parsonage, 6; augmentation, 12a, 35; pension, 35.

Roll of Chapter: 2-3.

Royalties: 37.

Salaries:
sum owed Mr. Barrell to be paid to his widow, 8, 9a, 40a; Mr. Fidge's petition for arrears, 14; Dr. Dixon's demand for a depositum. 25a.

School:
Admissions 17, 18, 28a; vacancy caused by departure of scholar, 24a;

Repairs: payment for, 24a; bill for glazing work demanded, 25a;

Salaries: payment to Paul Bairstow as encouragement, 11;

Staff: resignation of Mr. Wyburne, 43.

Stockbury: Augmentation, 57.

Surveys:
St. Margaret's parsonage, Rochester, 6; report on the Cathedral spire, 14a; wharf and quay in Maidstone, 36; property in Maidstone, 40.
Sutton Valence:
Purchase of parsonage, 34a; valuation of, 36.

Taxes:
payment of, by Chapter tenants, 22, 36; enquiry into taxes levied on land since the Restoration, 23a.

Wood and reparations money: 9a, 10.

DRc/Ac2/4a

Accusation:
Against Mr. Wyburne for using threatening words towards the verger, 11a.

Agenda: 3a.

Almsmen: 2, 4-5.

Augmentations: 8, 13a. 44a.

Benefactors: 7a.

Courts:
19; borrowing of records for , 13a, 14, 15; case James Dixon, the understeward, 25-26, 28-28a, 30a-31, 57a-58.

Dean's Orchard dispute:
9, 12a, 32a, 33a, 51a; leases of premises on the orchard, 2a, 5a-6, 34a, 41,53a.

Dispute: Between Dr. Clarke and John Crompe, 53.

Election of Officers: 8a, 9, 29, 30, 32a, 50.

Fines: Collected but not divided, 49a-50.

Hoo [St. Werburgh]: dispute over leasing of manor and parsonage,16a-18, 19a, 31, 37, 41a, 42a, 47a, 53.

Lay clerks: Thomas Huggins, probationer 1680, 15a; salary, 10.

Library: 15a.

Minor Canons:
John Wyburne discharged of locum tenens, 37a; Robert Beresford 1680, 40.

Organ: Mr. Henstridge, the organist to teach William Popely to play, 40.

Poor relief:
Headcorn, 18a, 20, 22, 24a; money collected in the Precinct for persons captured in Algeria and Africa [cf. Barbary, Sally], 26a-27; 38a, 45a, 53a.

Preaching: 45

Presentation:
Hoo [St. Werburgh] supposed to be elapsed on the 2d. of August next , 7.

Procurator in Convocation:
46-46a; Francis Durant de Breval 1680, 53, 54a; votes cast, 53.

Quitrents: 50a.

Rental: a new one ordered, 42a.

Repairs:
Cathedral and steeple, 7a, 8a, 14, 16; contribution towards rebuilding St. Paul's Cathedral, London, 23a.

School:
Admissions: 38a, 40a, 44a, 47a; enquiry into low condition of school, 4.

Staff: master, proposed resignation of in return for a living, 48; usher, Mr. Wyburne to remain as usher, 37a, and receive salary, 42; Ralph Beresford's refusal of the usher's place, 46a.

Stray Mare: 5, 7.

Warner alias Lee, John, Archdeacon: proposed monument to, 49, 55a-57.

Ac2/4b Almsmen:
Privy Council letter concerning soldiers from Tangiers to be considered for vacancies in all royal foundations, 7-7a; John Bostock 1681, 20-20a.

Apprenticeship:
6a; William Davidson bound to Benjamin Wilson, 18.

Bailiff of former Leeds Priory Estate: Robert Thomas 1680, 14, 15.

Chapter procedure:
Correspondence between the Dean and prebendaries on procedure at the Audit during the Dean's illness and consequent absence, 1-2a, 6-6a, 11-12a.

Choristers: John Joy, 9; James Henstridge, 10.

Courts: Forraigne [cf. Foreign] or out Courts to be held, 18a; records borrowed for, 18a-19.

Dean's Orchard: 4; 13a.

Debts: 8a, 18a.

Dixon, Robert, Vicar of Stockbury: Dispute over, 10a.

Grain, Isle of: Land leased on, 3a, 5a.

Haddenham, Buckinghamshire: 9, 11, 13.

Hoo [St. Werburgh]: Lease of manor and parsonage, 3a, 14a, 15a, 17a.

Lay clerk or Singing man: William Davidson to be considered, 18.

Library: Dr. Sumner's Saxon Dictionary given by Dean, 19a.

London:
Disputed ownership of land into the warfe [cf. wharf] of Fleetditch and the High Streete leading to Ludgate , 3a.

Mowbray, Sarah, alias: Sarah May: solution of dispute over death of, 8.

Poor relief: 12a.

Prebendary, installation of: John Wyvell 1681, 19a.

Quitrents: Account to be examined, 18.

Rent of assize: Pleas for discovery of, 4a.

Roll of Chapter: 16-17.

School: Admissions: 5, 9a, 10a, 18;

Staff: Paul Bairstow summoned to explain the early break-up of school at Whitsun 1681 and the position of young Heath and his master, 6a; master, Mr. Wilson in case Mr. Bairstow can be found another situation, 19a.

Sexton: Steven Bennett 1681, 18a.

Visitation, episcopal: 19.

Warner, John: Henry Lee and the monument to his father John Warner alias Lee, 3, 15a.

DRc/Ac2/5

Accounts: 23, 25, 54, 69.

Agenda: 64, 68.

Almsman: John Bostock, 31.

Apprenticeship: Heath bound to Bostocke, joiner, 41; 77.

Bailiff of former Leeds Priory estate: Edmond Randoll 1681, 12; 16; to collect pensions also, 19; 50/

Burials: 50.

Chatham:
Construction of a weet Docke [cf. wet dock?] for the King's use, 53-56; request from the Governors of the Chest for a free lease of property on Sellars Marsh as a home for poor seamen, 63-64.

Choir: Dispute over seating, 50.

Commission money: To be kept, 37.

Dean's Orchard: 10, 11, 14.

Debts: 36, 37, 54.

Dixon, James, understeward: 11, 18.

Dixon, Robert, Vicar of Stockbury: Payment to, 35; rent owing 35, 36; Depositum, 36; letter relating to the fine for property in Marden, non-renewal of a lease and the church's debt to him, 49.

Election of Officers: 7-8*.

Fines: List of, to be paid to the treasurer by his deputy, 37; 49; division of, 60; refusal to abate, 75.

Grain, Isle of: Land leased on, 26, 47; survey, 55; 68, 69, 73, 75; threat to destroy estate, 77.

Haddenham, Buckinghamshire: financial state of, 24, 45, 47, 71; 42-43; 54, 69, 76.

Hoo [St. Werburgh]: Lease of manor and parsonage, 16, 17, 34; petition for augmentation of vicarage, 77' late vicar's wife, Mrs. Booth allowed to remain at vicarage for a year and to retain profits, 37.

* Voting for offices of Vice-dean and Receiver shown.

DEAN AND CHAPTER OF ROCHESTER Inventory of Church, records and library delivered, 55

Law: list of persons to be sued at Common Law by order of the Chapter, 40.

London: Fleetditch estate, 14.

Map: Bishop's Spring in Cobham Park to be mapped, 43.

Minor Canons: Mr. Jacocke of Salisbury, Wiltshire 1681 (conditional), 43; Mr. Ekins of Peterborough, Northamptonshire 1681 (conditional), 52; Robert Beresford, 58.

Patentee: Payment to, 30, 32; dispute over sum payable to, 39.

Pensions: order to demand, for Dartford, Woolwich, Chislehurst, 76.

Poor relief: 32, 40, 56, 58.

Presentations
Halling: resignation of Thomas Wren 1681, 12, 47; petition in favour of Alexander Lawson for a presentation to Hawly, or Ensworth, or some other good vicaridge [i.e. vicarage], 15; 58; Mr. Bayly 1682 (conditional), 73; presented, 78;
Wouldham: 58; Mr. Ekins of Peterborough, Northamptonshire 1682 (conditional), 73.

Protestant convert: allocation of money to Adam Brown, a convert from Roman Catholicism, 72; public statement made by him, 74.

Protestant, French: James Axe and James Thurstone to collect for, 56; account of money collected for, in the Precinct, 66-67.

Quitrents: 54.

Receiver, deputy: present of £10 paid to Thomas Manley for his year of office as, (1680), 26; do. to James Thurstone (1681), 35.

Records: missing Chapter Books, 22; arrears book and rental delivered, 25, 55.

Repairs: 26, 32, 35.

Roll of Chapter: 3-5.

Royal Subsidy: 39.

School: Admissions: 1, 13, 31, 38, 50, 73; exhibition: John Petty, now Poastmaster at Merton to Oxford, 50; salaries: payment to Paul Bairstow for acting as usher, 31; order to pay certain quarter salaries, 61; staff: usher, Robert Beresford 1681, 58.

Sealing of documents: 57.

Sexton: Thomas Huggins locum tenens 1682, 76.

Shorne: case relating to the tithes of Monken Barn, 27-28, 56, 65.

Southfleet: order to enquire after the manor, lost from the church , 52, 54.

Surveys ordered: Shawstead [cf. Sharsted] Wood and Monk Wood, Wouldham, 78.

Timber: 38, 39; allowed for repair of Chatham parsonage, 58; cut without leave, 58; enquiry about, at Frindsbury, 78.

Trespass, case of: 64.

Warner alias Lee, John: church's account with Henry Lee, 29; 43.

Xenium : £40 out of the £90 due to the Bishop remitted in advance for the repair of the Cathedral, 26.

DRc/Ac2/6

Accounts: 32; Edmond Randoll, Bailiff of Leeds, 3; John Crompe's [cf. Crompe, Crumpe], 40; mistake in same, 102a-103a; of Archdeacon's visitation, 56a; Dr. Cooke's, 68a.

Agenda: 8a, 10, 20, 27, 32, 35, 37, 67, 84a.

Almsmen: Henry Jefferies, Tangier [Tunisia, Africa] soldier 1683, 76a; application of Michael Harman, 57, 76a, 87a.

Apprenticeship: 2a; (Heath), 14a.

Arrears: Book kept by Dr. Dixon, 8a; order to sue for, from parsons listed, 26; 14; 54; demand for, from Henry Smith, organblower for the porter's lodge, 27a.

Bells: 32; to consider casting and rehanging, 42a.

Bill: 12.

Books: list of, belonging to the school, 45a. Burials: division of money received for, 51a, 87.

Chatham: Smithfield survey, 107.

Choir: candidates to be tried out, 25; Thomas Rogers, 38, 38a; A[...] Kidd, 38a; reference to seating order of 1679, 31; order to provide new singing and organ books, 25; money given for, 35; payment for, 38; present of 2 guineas given Dr. Rogers for presenting several services, 38.

Clock: maintenance, 38a.

Cobham Park: orders relating to Bishop's Spring Wood, 10a.

Cooke, Dr. Ralph: dispute with Chapter, 65a, 68a-69.

Courts: account of proceedings demanded, 12; account of journey 23-27 April 1683 to hold courts, 71-72a; records etc., 31, 37, 46, 47, 47a, 52a, 53, 53a, 54a.

Crompe [cf. Cromp, Crumpe], John, Chapter Clerk: claims, 14.

Dixon, James, understeward: 6, 22a, 31, 33a, 36a, 37a, 47, 75-75a, 86; demand for payment for holding courts, 87; 89a.

Dixon, Robert, Vicar of Stockbury: claim for debt due from the Church and case in Chancery for non-payment of rent, 1-1a, 3, 4, 4a, 7a, 9a, 10, 11, 12, 14, 17a, 18a, 23-23a, 35a, 4, 45, 47, 49a-50, 50a, 52a, 55, 62a, 63-64, 65, 75, 75a; Stockbury tithe valuation and setting of fine, 82-82a, 84a, 85, 96a.

Elham tithe portion: 9a, 32a, 39, 102.

Election of Officers: 28a-29a; 94.

Episcopal election: order to search for record of election and installment of John Dolbin, 79; Francis Turner 1683, 79a-81a.

Farleigh, West: fee farm rent payable for Tutsome Hall, 34, 43-44, 46a, 47, 54a, 59A, 60, 65a, 78a, 83, 91a, 92.

Fees: demanded, 52a, 53; Dr. Dixon ordered to pay James Axe for preaching for him, 67a.

Fines: fixed, 2a, 81a, 83a, 98a; division of, 12a, 36, 40, 51a, 52, 77, 91a; list of, 69a; abatement demanded, 4a; reduced because barn blown down by a violent winde [i.e. wind], 18; voting on, 22.

Grain, Isle of: land leased at, 7a; lessee ordered to plough and sow mustard seed, 10; survey ordered, 14, 14a, 15, 17; order to prevent ploughing of Cane Marsh, 21a; order relating to ploughing, 39; 22, 24, 24a, 44a, 58a, 66a, 84a, 85a, 86, 89a.

Gratuity: additional fee given James Axe for preaching at such short notice and so well, 67a.

Haddenham, Buckinghamshire: 11a-12, 31, 31a, 105, (109).

Hoo, All Hallows: petition of parishioners on behalf of the vicar, 7a.

Inventory: of church goods delivered, 40a.

Journeys: payments for, 27a.

Lamberhurst: voting on fine for, 22; terrier of glebe demanded, 22a.

Lawsuits: all business relating to, to be entered in the Chapter Book to prevent future mistakes, 59B; repeated, 77.

Leases: rates for renewing, 23; mistake in, 25.

Library: 11; money for books, 52; money from burials to be used for, 87; book returned to, 83, 83a.

London, Fleetditch estate: 8a, 9, 9a, 14a, 17a, 32, 32a, 34a.

Minor Canons: Humphrey Brailesford of Peterborough [Northamptonshire]'s request for admission, 2; admitted 1682, 11; sworn, 15a; vote for Mr. Ekins voted void, 11.

Organist: Popely made apprentice, 52a.

Patentee: 31.

Patents: in future only to be granted during pleasure , 36a.

Pensions: Dartford, 24.

Petticanon [Minor Canon?] Row: request to build a malthouse, 74.

Precinct: order to investigate who resides there and to keep a watch, 39; tenement illegally demolished, 86a.

Present: fat buck offered, 62a.

Presentations:
Boughton Monchelsea: Mr. Richard's request for, 2a;
Rolvenden: Benjamin Horner 1682 (conditional), 17.

Property: order to enquire after ¾ acres in Strood, 2, 3, 33, 37, 37a; passage in Frindsbury and Cooling, 68a; land belonging to Hawkins Farm, Strood, 73; 6 acres land belong to Bowley manor formerly in the possession of Leeds Priory, 84.

Quitrents: Badmonden, 29a; Darenth, 33, 95; Sutton Valence, 8; Wateringbury, 26; collection of, 97a, 100a; delivery of, 53; 2, 17, 37, 40a, 70, 76, 101, 101a.

Receiver, Deputy: gratuity paid Thomas Manley for acting as, 39.

Records: search for, 32a, 34; borrowed and lost, 40; Benefactors' Book, 40-40a, 58a, 83a, 88, 89a; returned, 46, 52, 78, 78a, 86, 86a, 87; request for, 52a; missing, 53, 53a, 59B; correspondence concerning records borrowed by Counsel, 55a-56, 57a-58a, 61-61a; in Mr. Crompe's [cf. Crumpe, Cromp] desk, 45a.

Repairs: subscription requested for repair of the wall and bridge leading to the Isle of Grain, 47a, 52; organist's house, 38; Cathedral, 14a; Rolvenden vicarage, 17, 83; report on state of Strood mill and marsh, 41-41a, 42a, 43; demand for a report on the state of repair at Wateringbury vicarage, 26, 27.

Rochester: St. Nicholas churchyard, 85a.

Roll of Chapter: 30-30a.

Rolvenden: 17, 83; payment of augmentation deferred until Benjamin Horner gives satisfaction as to how he holds the living, 50*

Salaries: 22, 52a.

School: admissions: 13, 38a, 104; request for, 30a; exhibitions: to consider a scholar for Cambridge, Cambridgeshire 42a; Francis Hoel to Jesus College, Cambridge, 45; Robert Johnson to Peterhouse, Cambridge, 63a, 93; John Petty made a probationer at New College, Oxford, Oxfordshire 93**; [.....] Pratt to University (? Cambridge), 51, 64a, 93; salaries: complaint by the usher that Mr. Bairstow refused to pay his accustomed fee, 31a, 32, 34, 35, 37, 38a; staff: master, Mr. Rawlett recommended, 6a; state: of school to be examined, 106.

Seal: 13; division of seal money, 13a, 39a.

Shorne: case about Monken Barn tithes, 5-5a, 8.

* See above under Presentations.

** See above Ac2/5 under School.

Southfleet : enquiry concerning the mannor, 27a,33.

Stoke : illegal occupation of premises on the manor, 19.

Surveys ordered : Moathall, Bearsted, 16a; Russell's mill [Stoke], 25.

Tiles : stripped from Moathall manor by Lady Cage, 7a.

Timber : order to investigate illegal felling at Moathall, Bearsted, 7a; allowed for repairs at: Frindsbury, house and premises, 14; Hoo, parsonage house and chancel, 91; Southfleet, 51; Strood, Bonecakes [cf. Boncakes] farm, 91; house and barns, 27; 22.

Verger : to be paid a shilling for every seal passed, 13.

Visitation : Archdeacon's, 56a; Bishop's intended, 106a.

Waterbingbury : valuation and terrier, 20a-21; 25a; 26; augmentation, 26, 31; 42.

Woodnesborough : vicar's complaint concerning the manor and recotry to be heard, 106.

Wrotham : Waldham tithe portion, 46a, 48.

File updated by Borough Archivist, Medway Council 20 April 2001.

Date: 1678-1684
Quantity: 1 volume
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Dean and Chapter of Rochester

Leases

SUTTON VALENCE

Sutton Valence Parsonage

Sutton Valence parsonage with the messuages, houses, buildings, barns, edifices, lands, tithes, fruits, commodities and emoluments. Bundle No. 239

B

Lessee: Thomas Shipton of Daventry, Northamptonshire, gentleman

Term: 21 years

Rent: £14; 1quarter wheat and 2quarters oats; and one good, large brown, well fed and ordered each Christmas or within 20 days. Conditions: Grace 21 days; 2a, 2b, 3, 5-7, 10, 12, 13 as above.

Date: 1 December 1640
Quantity: 1 item
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Dean and Chapter of Rochester

Estate records

The Fabric of the Cathedral 1875-1900

Papers and correspondence relating to the restoration of the cathedral 1871-1892 and the raising of funds for the operation 1891.

Schedule of estimates submitted by John Thompson of Peterborough, Northamptonshire for underpining the west front, restoring the south west tower, and west end of north turret at the west end, and the south-west and north-west towers.

Date: 1888
Quantity: 1p.
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Dean and Chapter of Rochester

Estate records

The Fabric of the Cathedral 1875-1900

Papers and correspondence relating to the restoration of the cathedral 1871-1892 and the raising of funds for the operation 1891.

Letter. John Thompson 43 Wood Street, Peterborough, Northamptonshire to the Dean of Rochester. Cover to DRc/Emf 65/10.

Date: 18 June 1889
Quantity: 1p.
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Dean and Chapter of Rochester

Estate records

The Fabric of the Cathedral 1875-1900

Papers and correspondence relating to the restoration of the cathedral 1871-1892 and the raising of funds for the operation 1891.

Schedule of estimates submitted by John Thompson of Peterborough, Northamptonshire for underpinning the west front, restoring the south west tower, and west end of north turret at the west end, and the south-west and north-west towers.

File updated by Borough Archivist 15 November 2001.

Date: 1888
Quantity: 1p.
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Dean and Chapter of Rochester

Estate records

The Fabric of the Cathedral 1875-1900

Papers and correspondence relating to the restoration of the cathedral 1871-1892 and the raising of funds for the operation 1891.

Letter. John Thompson 43 Wood Street, Peterborough, Northamptonshire to the Dean of Rochester. Cover to DRc/Emf 65/10.

Date: 18 June 1889
Quantity: 1p.
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Dean and Chapter of Rochester

Estate records

The Fabric of the Cathedral 1875-1912

Restoration of Rochester Cathedral 1904-1906 (DRc/Emf 71/1-13)

A great deal of restoration work was undertaken during the period 1904-1906, much of it to the exterior of the building. The tower built in about 1808 was recased in stone in 1826 but was always considered rather unsatisfactory. Therefore in 1904 it was taken down and replaced by the present spire. It was built by Samuel Fancourt Halliday of Stamford, Lincolnshire at the sole expense of Thomas Hellyar Foord, a local builder and prominent alderman of the city, who also provided the clock. The new spire was dedicated on the 1300th anniversary of the founding of the see and the cathedral church, 30 November 1904+.

+ Smith, F.F., A History of Rochester, p289 (copy in the local studies collection at this centre)

The nine bundles of drawings listed here are the working drawings used during the restoration work, and are in consequence somewhat torn and dirty.

Tower, spire and belfry. (Bundle C).

Includes drawing of Rochester City coat of arms (DRc/Emf 71/3/8) and other coats of arms, initialed by C. Hodgson Fowler .

Includes elevation of central tower (DRc/Emf 71/3/19)

Includes elevation, section and plans of central tower, ringing chamber and bell chamber, signed by Samuel Fancourt Halliday of Stamford, Northamptonshire and C. Hodgson Fowler of Durham, architect. Coloured. (DRc/Emf 71/3/22).

Includes elevation, section and plans of central tower, ringing chamber and bell chamber, signed by Samuel Fancourt Halliday of Stamford, Northamptonshire and C. Hodgson Fowler of Durham, architect, October 1903, showing timber frameworks inside tower and spire. Coloured.(DRc/Emf 71/3/23)

Includes elevation of top of central tower and base of spire, showing coats of arms and other carved features (DRc/Emf 71/3/30).

Includes elevations of central tower and spire by Samuel Fancourt Halliday of Stamford, Northamptonshire and C. Hodgson Fowler of Durham, architect, October 1903 (DRc/Emf 71/3/31)

Paper and tracing paper, backed.

Date: c.1904-c.1906
Quantity: 2 portfolios/47 sheets
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Dean and Chapter of Rochester

Estate records

The Fabric of the Cathedral 1875-1912

Restoration of Rochester Cathedral 1904-1906 (DRc/Emf 71/1-13)

A great deal of restoration work was undertaken during the period 1904-1906, much of it to the exterior of the building. The tower built in about 1808 was recased in stone in 1826 but was always considered rather unsatisfactory. Therefore in 1904 it was taken down and replaced by the present spire. It was built by Samuel Fancourt Halliday of Stamford, Lincolnshire at the sole expense of Thomas Hellyar Foord, a local builder and prominent alderman of the city, who also provided the clock. The new spire was dedicated on the 1300th anniversary of the founding of the see and the cathedral church, 30 November 1904+.

+ Smith, F.F., A History of Rochester, p289 (copy in the local studies collection at this centre)

The nine bundles of drawings listed here are the working drawings used during the restoration work, and are in consequence somewhat torn and dirty.

Agreement between the Dean and Chapter of Rochester and Samuel Fancourt Halliday of Stamford, Northamptonshire, builder for the erection of the central tower and spire of the cathedral.

Date: 7 January 1904
Quantity: 1 item (paper)
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Dean and Chapter of Rochester

Estate records

The Fabric of the Cathedral

James Thomas Irvine and the excavations at Rochester Cathedral 1874 - 1894 (DRc/Emf 77/1-134)

Sir George Gilbert Scott was appointed Surveyor of Rochester Cathedral in about 1875 and he brought with him from Peterborough, Northamptonshire, his Clerk of Works James Thomas Irvine who seems to have been a highly intelligent man and devoted to George Gilbert Scott's ideals. He appears to have worked for Scott's office all his life and in one of his draft letters mentions the sad loss of My Dear Kind Old Master Sir Gilbert Scott (the breaking up of a connection that had extended over 30 years).... who had ever been a sort of Father to me.

On and off Irvine spent about twenty years excavating and examining the fabric at Rochester. That his work was good there seems no doubt. He was obviously highly thought of by his contemporary archaeologists, notably W.A. St. John Hope who used the vast mass of evidence, drawings, sketches and notes Irvine had built up over the years for his articles on Rochester Cathedral published in Archaeologia, Archaeologia Cantiana and the Builder. Most of these articles are preserved in this collection, and a brief study of them reveals most clearly St. John Hope's debt to Irvine, which, despite his acknowledgement, is far greater than might be imagined.

Irvine also worked at Peterborough, Northamptonshire, Lichfield, Staffordshire and Repton, Derbyshire and in his early years did some excavation work on Roman London. There are references to his work in these places among his papers.

In 1894, Canon Greville M. Livett, himself an ecclesiologist of some note, suggested that Irvine should provide the Chapter with a bound copy of his notes for their archives but it seems doubtful that he ever did so. All that has survived is a vast mass of very rough working papers and some copied up notes and drawings. The papers in the former group are too miscellaneous to deal with in any detail and have therefore been left as they were found. Most of them are made on the backs of old envelopes and have been stuck at some time into a folder made of brown paper. The latter group, however, has been listed in detail because it provides a very interesting picture of the discovery of how the Cathedral was built over the years, and the many rebuildings and changes that have taken place.

There is, of course, peculiar emphasis on Gundulf's church but the fact that emerges as the most surprising of all is that no clue as to the form of the Saxon Church was discovered until 1880. Irvine found it and his discovery naturally aroused immense interest at the time. Canon W.A. Scott Robertson wrote to Irvine from Sittingbourne asking for information. St. John Hope was overjoyed. Here at last was the evidence to prove the point that Gundulf's Church was a complete rebuilding on a new site following the ancient Saxon tradition to allow for continuity of services.

There is very little documentary evidence among the Surveyor's papers proper to show what work was being done in and about the Cathedral during the period 1875-1895. These papers would seem in part to fill the gap and they shed a very human light on the men doing the work, their ideas and aims, and the difficulties they experienced working for the Cathedral authorities who, though they allowed a vast amount of excavation work to be done, did not really appreciate its significance and often ordered the obliteration of paintings and early work simply because they did not like them.

The papers have been catalogued in chronological order as far as it can be determined. Irvine carefully dated most of his work, but where this is not so it has been assumed that he did it between 1875-1876.


Date: 1874-1894
Quantity: DRc/Emf 77/1-134
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Dean and Chapter of Rochester

Estate records

The Fabric of the Cathedral

James Thomas Irvine and the excavations at Rochester Cathedral 1874 - 1894 (DRc/Emf 77/1-134)

Part relation of the story of Abbot Wulgat of Peykirk, Lincolnshire and 18 monks turned out of their monastery by the machinations of local landowners. (Wulgat eventually became Abbot of Croyland [cf. Crowland], Lincolnshire). The story concerns the manor of Barnack in Northamptonshire, the relationship of its owner Watheof with King William I and the gift of the manor to Croyland Abbey. Part of Gundulf's crypt is generally supposed to have been built of Barnack stone.

Date: c.1874 x c.1894
Quantity: 1 item (paper)
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Dean and Chapter of Rochester

Estate records

The Fabric of the Cathedral

James Thomas Irvine and the excavations at Rochester Cathedral 1874 - 1894 (DRc/Emf 77/1-134)

Notes on the owners of Barnack manor, Northamptonshire 1115-1184.

Date: c.1874 x c.1894
Quantity: 1p.
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Dean and Chapter of Rochester

Estate records

The Fabric of the Cathedral

James Thomas Irvine and the excavations at Rochester Cathedral 1874 - 1894 (DRc/Emf 77/1-134)

Notes on Barnack [cf. Northamptonshire] stone and that used by Gundulf at Rochester.

Date: c.1874 x c.1894
Quantity: 1 item (paper)
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Dean and Chapter of Rochester

Estate records

The Fabric of the Cathedral

James Thomas Irvine and the excavations at Rochester Cathedral 1874 - 1894 (DRc/Emf 77/1-134)

Off-print entitled Notes on the Architectural history of Rochester Cathedral by W.H. St. John Hope, BA, FSA, inscribed by the author 28 March 1882, probably published in Archaeologia.

Includes plan of cathedral showing building phases

With accompanying notes and letter, headed as per editor, The Archaeological Journal, Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, addressed to James T. Irvine.Asks about progress at Peterborough, Northamptonshire.

Dean and Chapter of Rochester


Date: 1882
Quantity: 1 item (paper)
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Dean and Chapter of Rochester

Estate records

The Fabric of the Cathedral

James Thomas Irvine and the excavations at Rochester Cathedral 1874 - 1894 (DRc/Emf 77/1-134)

Draft letter. James T. Irvine, 167 Cromwell Road, Peterborough, Northamptonshire to [W.H. St. John Hope]: adverse comments on the plates he has used for his paper published in Archaeologia. Points of disagreement with his views.

Date: c.1890
Quantity: 2pp.
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Dean and Chapter of Rochester

Estate records

The Fabric of the Cathedral

James Thomas Irvine and the excavations at Rochester Cathedral 1874 - 1894 (DRc/Emf 77/1-134)

Notes and drawings from John Thompson's* notebook, of discoveries made by the old west end and of the Saxon cathedral.

Tracing paper, mounted. See also DRc/Emf 77/38, 76.

* John Thompson was a Peterborough, Northamptonshire, stoneman. He was responsible for most of the restoration work carried out between 1888-1891. He worked under the architect John L. Pearson.

Date: 28 January 1889
Quantity: 2 items (paper)
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Dean and Chapter of Rochester

Estate records

The Fabric of the Cathedral

James Thomas Irvine and the excavations at Rochester Cathedral 1874 - 1894 (DRc/Emf 77/1-134)

Letter. James T. Irvine, Peterborough Cathedral, Northamptonshire, to W.H. St. John Hope: Cover to proof and sketches with permission to use the latter. Thinks, with Gundry, that early churches were rebuilt rather than altered in order to preserve the continuity of services. With the advent of the regular orders of clergy the east wall line of the cloister becomes a fixture.

Date: 28 February 1898
Quantity: 1p.
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Dean and Chapter of Rochester

Estate records

The Fabric of the Cathedral

James Thomas Irvine and the excavations at Rochester Cathedral 1874 - 1894 (DRc/Emf 77/1-134)

Portfolio of very rough drawings (mainly mouldings, plans of piers, arcades, tracery, floor plans, excavations, vaulting, responds, triforium, corbels and dimensions) and architectural and historical notes, by James Thomas Irvine made during his work at the Cathedral. Many are the basis for the drawings in this series (DRc/Emf 77/1-134) but others are unidentifiable. Some drawings relate to churches elsewhere, e.g. Peterborough Cathedral, Northamptonshire and Frindsbury Church.

Includes drawings of choir arcades (DRc/Emf 77/134/3, 59);

Includes drawing of moulding on chancel arch at Frindsbury Church with notes, 1875 (DRc/Emf 77/134/33);

Includes drawings of St. Bartholomew's Hospital Chapel, Rochester (DRc/Emf 77/134/48, 75);

Includes envelope addressed to J.T. Irvine, 3 Victoria Terrace, Rochester, bearing Penny Red stamp and notes and drawings 1875 (DRc/Emf 77/134/64);

Includes envelope addressed to J.T. Irvine, 3 Victoria Terrace, Rochester, bearing Penny Red stamp 1874 (DRc/Emf 77/134/66);

Includes notes on the dimensions of Peterborough Cathedral tower, Northamptonshire 1883 (DRc/Emf 77/134/72) and other notes (DRc/Emf 77/134/94);

Includes site plan of cathedral, precincts, High Street, bridge and castle outer bailey c.1875 (DRc/Emf 77/134/73);

Includes print from engraving of font in the parish church of St. Nicholas, Rochester c.1800 (DRc/Emf 77/134/77);

Includes pencil drawing of Romano-British blackware vessel found in Gresham Street, London 1846, signed by Irvine (DRc/Emf 77/134/78);

Includes outline sketch of figure of Britannia 1811, initialed T.I. (DRc/Emf 77/134/79) [see also DRc/Emf 77/134/83 below];

Includes drawings of coats of arms with biographical notes on bearers (bishops?) (DRc/Emf 77/134/80, 126, 128);

Includes drawing of lid of sarcophagus showing figures of Britannia as above and shells (DRc/Emf 77/134/83);

Includes pencil key to drawings, possibly those in this folder, possibly matching numbers given to many of the drawings and possibly allocated by Irvine himself (see also editor's notes below) (DRc/Emf 77/134/85-88);

Includes drawings of vaulting in crypt (DRc/Emf 77/134/121);

Includes elevation of cloisters (DRc/Emf 77/134/122);

Includes longitudinal section of roof beams with interior elevation of triforium (DRc/Emf 77/134/131);

Includes coloured drawings of floor or wall tiles 1874 (DRc/Emf 77/134/135);

Includes notes on Canterbury Cathedral architecture (DRc/Emf 77/134/153).

NB an earlier pencilled numbering sequence, incompletely carried out, but still evident on the documents, has been ignored in the formal full sub-numbering of the contents of the portfolio by the present editor. See also above, DRc/Emf 77/134/85-88.

Date: [c.1874 x c.1894]
Quantity: 1 portfolio/153pp./sheets
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Dean and Chapter of Rochester   Finance records: Treasurers' books (DRc/FTb )

 

  Giving lists of names and signatures of recipients arranged under headings as per cathedral officers, canons, prebends, choristers, paupers [beadsmen?] and pupils of the Cathedral Grammar School.

 

Treasurer's book - Edmund Barrell

 

Includes 6d alms given to a poor outlandish man, 4 January 1715

 

Includes 6d alms given to Thomas Brown and William Cannon with a pass from Kings Weston (Kings Wesen) in Gloucestershire, 13 January 1715

 

Includes 5s alms given to Monsieur le Marquis de Vignacourt Franconville and to Robert de Valois de Rouen in Normandy (Normandie) [France], 28 January 1715

 

Includes 5s alms given to James Baker vicar of Kilsby in Northamptonshire, 31 January 1715

 

Includes 6d alms given to John Old, that had been a schoolmaster at sea, 31 January 1715

 

Includes 6d alms given to Milicent Lucy, daughter of Sir Richard Lucy, Bt., 4 February 1715

 

Includes 2s alms given to one David Blank a poor Hamburger (Hamburgher) [cf. Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany] cast away on the back of the Isle of Wight [Hampshire], 8 February 1715

 

Includes 6d alms giben to one Isabella Gibson with a pass from Stockton on Tees (Stocton upon Tees) [County Durham], 16 February 1715

 

Includes 1s 6d alms given to Edward Crooms and Robert MacDonnel [cf. MacDonnell, McDonnel, McDonnell], and Richard Pembrook [cf. Pembroke] with passes from Dublin [Ireland], 19 February 1715

 

Includes alms given to James Smith and James Collins, soldiers from Port Mahon [Minorca, cf. Spain, Mediterranean], February - March 1715

 

Includes 2s alms given to Robert Evans, Samuel Dixson [cf. Dixon] and 6 other poor seamen that had been taken by pirates, and were in a very poor condition, with a pass from Wells [next the Sea] in Norfolk, 1 March 1715

 

Includes 6d alms given to John Stone with a pass from Norfolk; wherein several others are named, viz. Richard Gray [cf. Grey], Sarah Long, etc., 25 March 1715

 

Includes 5s alms given to the prisoners in Mr. Rook [cf. Rooke]'s prison, 16 April 1715

 

Includes 1s alms gven to one John Fiske [cf. Fisk] in the parish of Cratfield (Cratsfield) in the county of Suffolk, a poor tradesman, 18 April 1715

 

Includes 3s alms given to Richard Daws [cf. Dawes] of the parish of Brading (Braden) in the Isle of Wight [Hampshire] forced to abscond for debt, 30 April 1715

 

Includes 1s alms given to a poor woman that broke her arm with a fall from a cherry tree, 21 June 1715

 

Includes £1 alms given (by order of the chapter) to James Wybarn [cf. Wilbor, Wilbore, Wylbore, Wybore, Wylbor, Wybarnes, Wyrbarne, Wyborn, Wyborne, Wybor, Wybon, Wiborne, Wibarn, Wildbore], a bricklayer, who had been a long time disabled from working by a fall from a house, 20 July 1715

 

Includes 6d alms given to a poor Flandrican [cf. Fleming; Flanders, Belgium, France], 21 July 1715

 

Includes 1s alms given to Thomas and Nicholas Heathcock, cast away in their passage from New England [cf. America] and set on shore here, 13 August 1715

 

Includes 2s 6d alms given to Mary Smith and Ann Atkins of East Claydon (East Clayton) in the county of Buckinghamshire, great sufferers by fire, 16 August 1715

 

Includes 6d alms given to Simon Fisher etc. with a pass from Leghorn [cf. Livorno, Tuscany, Italy], 16 August 1715

 

Includes 2s 6d alms given to one Maurice Jones a soldier, bachelor of arts, formerly of Jesus College in Oxford [Oxfordshire], 27 August 1715

 

Includes 1s alms given to Hermannus Wisher Osnabruga-Westphalus [sic] [cf. Osnabruck, Westphalia, Germany], 18 October 1715

 

Includes 2s alms given to one John Pratt a poor broken tradesman of the parish of Boston in the county of Lincoln [cf. Lincolnshire], 10 December 1715

 

Includes 5s alms given to one Jonathan Oakhill, who had his house burnt at Preston [Lancashire] by the rebels [cf. Jacobites], 10 December 1715

 

Includes alms given to discharged, disbanded, blind, maimed, poor and sick soldiers and seamen, passim

 

Latin and English.

 

File updated by Borough Archivist 15 November 2001.

Date: 1714-1715
Quantity: 1 booklet
Result number 22 - Please quote Reference: DRc_Rochester_Priory_and_other_Religious_Houses_1080_1541/02_Intro on request slip.

Path: Ecclesiastical_Regular_and_Capitular_Foundations/ DRc_Rochester_Priory_and_other_Religious_Houses_1080_1541/ 02_Intro.html

THE CATHEDRAL PRIORY OF ST. ANDREW THE APOSTLE, ROCHESTER

Click here to view the full list of the Rochester Priory records or select the folder from the query tool by following the instructions given there.

List of priors of St. Andrew, Rochester

Ordwin occurs 1089; deposed (Wharton, Anglia Sacra p.392
Ernulf (46)occurs 1093-1096 ( Textus Roffensis DRc/R1/ f.179; DRc/T49); resigned 1096
Ralph (47)succeeded 1096 (Wharton, op. cit p.392); resigned 1107
Ordwin re-elected 1107 ( Textus Roffensis DRc/R1/f.198; DRc/T47)
Letard c.1115-1125 (DRc/T310/1); occurs 1144
Brian c.1142-1148 ( Registrum Temporalium q.12 f.5); occurs 1145 (DRc/T57(5)), 1146
Reginald occurs 1154
Ernulf c.1148-1182 (DRc/L5/3)
William de Borstalle [i.e. Borstal] (48)
Silvester (49)occurs 1177 (DRc/L17), 1178
Richard (50)resigned 1182
Alfred (51) Osbern de Scapeya [i.e. Sheppey] (52) Ralph de Ros (53) occurs 1199; (see DRc/T572/14)

[(46) Monk of Bec [France]. Prior of Canterbury 1096; Abbot of Peterborough (Northamptonshire) 1107; Bishop of Rochester 1115-1125
(47) Monk of Caen, Normandy, France. Came to England with Lanfranc. Abbot of Battle, Sussex 1107. See DRc/T47
(48) Cellarer (Wharton, op. cit. p.393)
(49) Cellarer (ibid)
(50) Abbot of Burton, died 19 April 1188 ( ibid )
(51) Abbot of Abingdon (Berkshire) between 1185-1189 (ibid)
(52) Sacrist ( ibid )
(53) Sacrist ( ibid )]

Elias occurs 1214 (DRc/T193/1)
William occurs 1222
Richard de Derente [i.e. Darenth] elected 1225; occurs 1228 (Wharton, op.cit. p.393), 1230 (DRc/T354/4), 1236, 1238 (Wharton, op.cit. p.393)
William de Hoo [i.e. St. Werburgh or Hundred] (54)elected 1239; occurs 1241 (DRc/L12)
Alexander de Glanville elected 1242; died suddenly 1252 Wharton op.cit. 393
Simon de Clyve [Cliffe] (55)
John de Renham [Rainham] (56) elected 1262; deposed 1283
Thomas de Wouldham (57) elected 1283; resigned 1291
John de Renham [Rainham] re-elected 1292; died 1294
Thomas de Shelford [Shalford] succeeded 1294; resigned 1301
John de Greenstreet elected 1301; resigned 1314
Hamo de Hethe [Hythe] (58) elected 1314; resigned 1319
John de Westerham appointed 1320; died 1321
John de Speldhurst (59) elected 1321; resigned 1333
John de Sheppey (60) elected 1333; resigned 1351 (Rochester Episcopal Register I, f. 157)

[(54) Sacrist. Refused to assent to the sale of Chattenden Wood, Frindsbury; resigned and retired to Woburn Abbey, Bedfordshire where he died (Wharton, op.cit. p.393)
(55) Sacrist. Resigned through ill health ( ibid )
(56) Said to have manipulated the election of John Bradfield as Bishop of Rochester in 1278. Accused of embezzlement and simony. He died on 7 January 1293/1294 ( ibid p.394)
(57) Bishop of Rochester 1292-1317
(58) Bishop of Rochester 1319-1352
(59) Cellarer
(60) Bishop of Rochester 1353-1360. Treasurer of England 1356-1360]

Robert de Suthflete [i.e. Southfleet] (61) succeeded 1352; died 1361
John de Hertlepe [Hartlip] (62) elected 1361; resigned 1380
John Sheppey (63) elected 1380; died 1419
William Tonebreg [Tonbridge] (64) elected 1419; died 1444/1445 (Rochester Episcopal Register III, f.203)
John Clyve [Cliffe] (65) elected 1445 ( ibid ); died 1460 ( ibid. f.233 verso)
Richard Peckham (66) elected 1460 ( ibid ); occurs 1463 (DRc/T336), 1467
William Wood (67) occurs 1468, 1470 (DRc/T301), 1472 (DRc/T288), 1475 (DRc/T281)
Thomas Bourne (68) occurs 1478 (DRc/Elb/1A/f.4), 1479, 1480, 1482, ( ibid f.10), 1486, 1488 (DRc/T104/1), 1489, 1492 (DRc/Elb/1A/f.16); resigned 1494 (Rochester Episcopal Register IV f.7)
William Bishop elected 1494 ( ibid ); resigned 1509 ( ibid. , f.53)
William Fresell (69) elected 1509 ( ibid ); died 1532 ( ibid., f.173)

[(61) Subdeacon 21 September 1325 (Rochester Episcopal Register I, f.69 verso); Deacon 26 January 1325/1326 ( ibid., f.71); priest 2 April 1327 ( ibid., f.76); resigned Office of chamberlain 17 September 1326 ( ibid., f.118); voted for John de Sheppey as prior 19 August 1333 ( ibid., f. 157); Warden of Felixstowe (Suffolk)
(62) Deacon 14 June 1348 ( ibid., f.237 verso); Warden of Felixstowe (Suffolk)
(63) Subdeacon 30 May 1364 ( ibid., f.327 verso); priest 19 September 1367 ( ibid., f.330 verso)
(64) Acolyte 24 September 1396 ( ibid. II., f.146 verso); Subdeacon 21 December 1398 ( ibid. f.196); priest 18 December 1400 ( ibid., f.156 verso)
(65) Subdeacon 23 September 1402 ( ibid., f.1810 verso); deacon 22 September 1403 ( ibid. III., f.37 verso) priest 29 March 1404 ( ibid. II, f.186 verso); cellarer 25 May 1425 ( ibid. III., f.47 verso)
(66) Professed c.7 September 1446 ( ibid. , f.207 verso); acolyte and subdeacon 17 December 1446 ( ibid. , f.209); priest 19 December 1450 ( ibid. f.220 verso)
(67) Subprior 10 September 1461 ( ibid. , f.234 verso)
(68) Acolyte 14 April 1458 ( ibid., f.231); subdeacon Easter Saturday 1460 ( ibid., f.233); deacon 19 September 1461 ( ibid., f.235 verso); priest 19 September 1461 ( ibid., f.236 verso)
(69) Prior of Binham, Norfolk. Professed at St. Albans (Hertfordshire) ( ibid., f.53). Probably the first non-local prior since the late twelfth century.]

Laurence Mereworth (70) elected 1532 ( ibid. ); resigned 1538
Walter Boxley (71) occurs 1538 (DRc/T164), 1539 (DRc/T282, DRc/335/1, 1540 (DRc/T335/4).

[(70) Deacon 8 March 1504/1505 ( ibid., f.41); resigned office of cellarer 2 December 1514 ( ibid.,f.72 verso); sacrist 2 December 1514 ( ibid., f.72 verso); resigned 20 November 1518 ( ibid., f.77 verso); cellarer 12 November 1518 ( ibid. ); removed and replaced 22 October 1522 ( ibid., f.108 verso); resigned 5 October 1526 ( ibid., f.134 verso); subprior 5 October 1526 ( ibid.); resigned 11 November 1532 ( ibid., f.174). Also known as Laurence Dann

(71) Professed 26 November 1514 ( ibid. , f.72); deacon 20 December 1522 ( ibid. , f.109); present at the election of Laurence Mereworth 1532 ( ibid. , f.173). Also known as Walter Phillips under which name he was appointed as the first Dean of Rochester.]


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Result number 23 - Please quote Reference: DRc_Rochester_Priory_and_other_Religious_Houses_1080_1541/DRc_T066 on request slip.

Path: Ecclesiastical_Regular_and_Capitular_Foundations/ DRc_Rochester_Priory_and_other_Religious_Houses_1080_1541/ BA01_Foundation_Charters_Title_Deeds_and_Leases_c1090_1539/ 01_St_Andrews_Priory_Rochester_c1100_1526/ DRc_T066.html

Cathedral Priory of St. Andrew the Apostle, Rochester

Letters Patent of King Henry VII to the Prior and Convent of Rochester 1486 +

Inspeximus of Letters Patent of King Edward IV 1472

A. Inspeximus of Letters Patent of King Henry III to the Prior and Convent of Rochester 1259

Quitclaim, on payment of one gold mark into the royal wardrobe at Canterbury, of all right and claim to the advowson of Hoo [St. Werburgh or Hundred] which Prior Simon [de Clyve/Cliffe] and convent of Rochester has obtained by exchange from the nuns of St. Suplice [de Rennes] in Britany, [France], and to which they had successfully defended their right against the king in his court.

The king at Canterbury [10] November 1259.**

+ This document does not appear to have been enrolled. From the hand and content it might be datable as either 1486 or 1510 as no indication is given as to which King Henry gave the Letters Patent.

** Part of the text has been damaged, but see C.P.R. King Henry III, volume V, P.62 from which the date has been supplied.

B. Inspeximus of Letters Patent of King Edward I to the Prior and Convent of Rochester 1275

1. Charter of King William [II] [1087 x 1100]*

2. Charter of King William [II] to ........** and all his ministers in Housak [c.1088 x 1094]***

Confirmation to St. Andrew's church, Rochester of land belonging to the reeve of Chatham which the monks have inclosed in their garden on condition that the monks sing masses, and that Bishop G[undulf] [i.e. Gundulf] gives other land of his own which is worth quarter of what the land was worth when the Bishop of Bayeux [Normandy, France] gave it to the monks.

Witnesses

Walkelin, Bishop [of Winchester]
Robert, Chancellor
Renulf, Chaplain

At Brigstoke [in Northamptonshire]

* Charters B1-3 are attributed to King William I in these letters patent. It may well be that B3 is a charter of King William I but B1 and 2 are certainly not. B1 is quoted in the inspeximus of King Henry III, 1265 as charter of King William II. B2 does not appear elsewhere but from internal evidence can be dated between about 1088 and 1094.

** Document damaged at this point.

*** Robert Bloet became Chancellor in about 1088 and remained in office until he was elevated to the see of Lincoln in 1094.

B.3.Charter King William I or II to St. Andrew's Church, Rochester [1066 x 1100]*

Order that the Church of St. Andrew in the City of Rochester shall have the customs which it had in the time of King Edward (the Confessor) in all its lands, annones and ports.

4. Charter of King William II [1087 x 1089]

5. Charter of King William II to St. Andrew's Church, Rochester [1087-1100]* *

Confirmation of St. Andrew's Church of the Church on the Royal Manor of Dartford which Robert, the King's Steward gave to the monks and which he and his son Hamo handed over to them in the King's presence.

Witnesses

Robert, Count of Mellent
Robert, Count of Montollio

6. Charter of King William II to the Bishop of Suffolk, the Sheriff and other Barons French [cf. France] and English [1087-1100]* *

Confirmation of St. Andrew's Church, Rochester of Roger Bigot's gift to St. Andrew's church of the Church of St. Felicity, Walton [in Felixstowe, Suffolk] with the tithes and all other things.

Witness

Eudo, the Steward at Winchester.

* King William I 1066-1087; King William II 1087-1100 ** King William II 1087-1100.

B.7 Charter of King Henry I [1123-1135]

8. Charter of King Henry I to Ansfrid, the Sheriff and other Barons French [cf. France] and English in Kent. [1128-1134]*

Gift to St. Andrew's Church, Rochester of Boxley Church with all its appurtenances in lands, tithes, oblations, rights, customs and liberties just as and better than ever Giffard, the King's Chaplain held it and Ansfrid the Clerk before that.

Witnesses

William [Corbois/Corbyl], Archbishop of Canterbury
Gilbert [Universalis], Bishop of London
Alexander, Bishop of Lincoln
Seifrid [Seffridus], Bishop of Chichester

At London

9. Charter of King Henry I to Archbishop A[nselm] [i.e. Anselm], Hamo, Sheriff and all other men of Kent and all Barons of England. [1100 x 1107]* *

Gift to Bishop Gundulf, the Church of St. Andrew and St. Paulinus, the Confessor and the monks of a two day fair in the City of Rochester on the eve and festival of St. Paulinus and all the issues therefrom inside and outside the City.

* Gilbert [Universalis], Bishop of London 1128-1134, a witness ** King Henry I 1100-1135; Gundulf, Bishop of Rochester died in 1107.

B.9 Witnesses

William Weyelimast
Eudo, the Steward
Hamo, the Steward
William Peverell
Hamo Peverel

10. Charter of King Henry I [1107 x 1109]

11. Charter of King Henry I to all his Barons and Officials [1100-1123]* *

Confirmation to St. Andrew's Church, Rochester of Soc and Sac toln and theam grithbrece hamsocne forstalles infangenethiof flemeneferme and other customs and liberties better than ever Christ Church, Canterbury held them in the times of the King, his father, the King, his brother and Archbishop Lanfranc.

The fourth penny from the toll of land and water in the City of Rochester, from the ferry when the bridge is broken, and from the whole hundred; and, saving the King's tax, one fourth part of the issues pertaining to the Constable of the City.

Witnesses

Robert [Bloet/Bluet], Bishop of Lincoln
Turc' de Guermon
Hamo, the Steward

At London

** King Henry I 1100-1135; Robert [Bloet/Bluet], Bishop of Lincoln died in 1123.

B.12 Charter of King Henry I to Hamo, the Steward and Hugh de Boch [1103-1107]*

Order forbidding any person to fish in the River Thames above the fishery of the monks of Rochester at Niwera. If any persons are found fishing there they shall be forfeit to the King.

Witness

Waldric, Chancellor at Westminster [Middlesex].

13. Charter of King Henry I to Archbishop A[nselm] [i.e. Anselm], Hamo, the Steward and all his Barons French [cf. France] and English in Kent. [1100-1107]* *

Confirmation to St. Andrew's Church, Rochester and Bishop Gundulf of Aylesford Church with the lands, tithes and other things; Sutton Church with all the tithes in annones, beasts, pasturage, mills and other things; Woolwich Church with all the tithes; half the Royal tithe of Strood and Chalk for the salvation of the souls of the King, his wife and his parents.

Witness

Eudo, the Steward at Rochester.

* Waldric became Chancellor in 1103 and remained in office until he was elevated to the see of Laon in 1107.
** King Henry I 1100-1135. The Charter is addressed to Gundulf, Bishop of Rochester and St. Andrew's Church [Rochester]. Gundulf died in 1107.

B14 Charter of King Henry I to Archbishop A[nselm] [i.e. Anselm], Hamo, the Steward and all his Barons French and English in Kent. [1100/1101]*

Confirmation to St. Andrew's Church, Rochester and Bishop Gundulf of Churches of Dartford and Aylesford with the Churches subject to them, and all the tithes of the vills where they are in annones, pasturage and money just as Saint Augustine held them in the time of his father; Milton Church with the tithes of the vill and the tithe of whales caught in the Bishopric of Rochester. Order that the said Saint, Bishop (Gundulf) and the monks shall have the Churches and tithes and hold them freely and quietly, and that no man shall harm them.

Witnesses

Richard [i.e. Rober Bloet/Bluet?], Bishop of Lincoln
William Giffard, Chancellor
Eudo, the Steward
Hamo, the Steward
William de Albinucio
William Pevrel of Dover

At Rochester 12 March.

* William Giffard was Chancellor to King William II and remained in office until about April 1101.

The King caused these writings to be exemplified under contd. his seal to minimise the danger to the Prior and Convent of Rochester for future time because the original documents were torn and their seals broken+.

Witness to the Letters Patent of King Edward I

Robert [Burnel], Bishop of Bath and Wells, Chancellor at Westminster [Middlesex] 10 November 1275.

C. Inspeximus of Letters Patent of King Edward I to the Prior and convent of Rochester 1275

1. Charter of King Stephen [1135 x 1154]

2. Charter of King Stephen to Ralph, son of Conus, the Sheriff of Kent and the justiciars and officials of Rochester to St. Andrew's church Rochester [1135-1139] ++

The Monks of St. Andrew's church, Rochester shall have their lands, tenures, and customs, and one fourth part of the rents of Rochester as well as ever they did in the time of King Henry on the day he died* and in the times of other Kings, his ancestors.

Witness

Robert, Chancellor at Rochester.

+ Nos igitur priori et monachis ecclesie predicte per rupturas scriptuarum predictarum seu sigillorum eis appensorum periculum minueat infuturum scriptures predictas sub sigillo nostro fecimus exemplari.

++ Robert le Poer, nephew of Robert le Poer, Bishop of Salisbury was Chancellor 1135-1139.

* in die qua fuit vivus et mortuus.

C.3 Charter of King Stephen to the King's officials in Merlana [1135-1154] **

Gift to the Bishop of Rochester of ½ virgate land in Merlana. No person shall harm him and if they do, the King's justice shall be done.

Witness

The Chancellor at Wallingford [in Berkshire].

4. Charter of KIng Henry II [1154-1189]

5. Charter of King Henry II [1174-1189]

6. Charter of King Richard I [1193]

7. Charter of King Richard I [1189-1194]

The same reason is given for the exemplification of these charters as under B.

Witness to the Letters Patent of Edward I

Robert [Burnel], Bishop of Bath and Wells, Chancellor at Westminster 10 November 1275.

D. Inspeximus of Letters Patent of King Edward III to the Prior and convent of Rochester 1335

1. Inspeximus of Letters Patent of King Henry III 1265

a. Charter of King William II [1087-1089]

b. Charter of King Henry I [1123-1135]

c. Charter of King Henry I [1107-1109]

d. Charter of King Henry II [1174-1189]

** Stephen 1135-1154 e. Charter of King Richard I [1193]

f. Charter of King Richard I [1189-1194]

g. Charter of King Richard I 1197

D. Witnesses to the Letters Patent of King Edward III

J[ohn] [i.e. John de Stratford], Archbishop of Canterbury, Chancellor H[enry] [i.e. Henry de Burghersh], Bishop of Lincoln, Treasurer R[ichard] [i.e. Richard de Angarville, Aungervyle or de Bury], Bishop of Durham, John, Earl of Cornwall, the King's brother, John de Warenne [cf. Warinne], Earl of Surrey, Henry de Percy, Ralph de Nevill, Seneschal of the King's guesthouse

The King at Newcastle upon Tyne [Northumberland] 2 July 1335.

E. Inspeximus of Letters Patent of King Edward III to the Prior and convent of Rochester 1335/6

1. Inspeximus of Letters Patent of King Henry III 1265

a. Charter of King William II [1087-1089]

b. Charter of King Henry I [1123-1135]

c. Charter of King Henry [1107-1109]

d. Charter of King Henry II [1174-1189]

e. Charter of King Henry II [1154-1189]

f. Charter of King Richard I [1193]

g. Charter of King Richard I [1189-1194]

h. Charter of King Richard I 1197

The Prior and convent of Rochester shall not be impeded in their enjoyment of the foregoing by reason of any non-user in the past.

Witnesses to the Letters Patent of King Edward III

J[ohn] [i. John de Stratford], Archbishop of Canterbury, Chancellor H[enry] [i.e. Henry de Burghersh], Bishop of Lincoln, Treasurer W[illiam] [i.e. William Ayremyn], Bishop of Norwich John, Earl of Cornwall, the King's brother John de Warenne, Earl of Surrey, Richard, Earl of Arundel, Henry de Percy, William de Monte Acuto, Ralph de Nevill, Seneschal of the King's guesthouse

The King at Westminster [Middlesex] 16 March 1335/1336

F. Inspeximus of a charter of King Edward [I]+ to the Prior and convent of Rochester 1295

G. Inspeximus of Letters Patent of King Edward III 1344

H. Inspeximus of Letters Patent of King Edward III 1345

Special licence to the Prior and convent of Rochester to fortify and crenellate the wall of stone and chalk extending from the east gate of the city of Rochester to St. William's gate between the city and the garden belonging to the prior and convent, and to keep it crenellated without any interruption or impediment by the King, his heirs or their officials whatsoever forever.

The King at Westminster [Middlesex] 5 August 1345.

I. Inspeximus of Letters Patent of King Edward III 1369

See DRc/T63 K. Inspeximus of Letters Patent of King Edward III 1374

Special licence to Robert de Beleknappe, kt., notwithstanding the statute or mortmain, to give to the Prior and convent of Rochester his manor and Shawstead [cf. Sharsted] near.

+ This is given in the inspeximus as a charter of King Edward III but this cannot be the case as Anthony Bek/Beck, Bishop of Durham 1284-1311 appears as a witness.

Rochester, 23 acres land, 80 acres pasture and l acre wood in Chatham and Wouldham; and ½ the manor of Lidsing with its appurtenances, excepting 20 acres land on Shawstead manor held from the king as of the honour of Crevequore by military service, and 8 acres land on the same manor held from the King as of the honour of Leybourne.

Rent: 22 marks a year to be paid at Easter and Michaelmas in equal portions.

Conditions: 1. to find a monk to celebrate divine services every day in the cathedral church at Rochester according to an ordinance already made by Robert de Belcknappe

2. To do the due and customary services on behalf of Robert de Beleknappe [cf. Beleknap, Belknap, Belknappe, Belcknappe, Belkeneppe, Belkeneppe] and his heirs to the King, his heirs, and the chief lords of the fees for the manor of Shawstead and the land, pasture and wood, and half the manor of Lidsing [cf. Lydsing] forever.

The King at Eltham manor 28 December 1374.

L. Inspeximus of Letters patent of King Richard II 1393

Robert de Belknap, kt., deceased, by special licence obtained in this behalf from the King's grandfather, recently gave to Rochester priory the manor of Shawstead [cf. Sharsted] near Rochester with half the manor of Lidsing and other lands in Chatham and Wouldham, which, excepting 20 acres land on the manor of Shawstead as of the honour of Crevecoer, which honour the King's consort holds for life with reversion to the King and his heirs, and 8 acres land as of the honour of Leybourne, were being held from the Lord Edward, late King of England, the King's grandfather;

The residue of the same manor and of the other lands and tenements was being held from other persons as well as the king's grandfather. The monks were to pay the tent and abide by the conditions quoted under DRc/T66/1 K.

Afterwards Robert de Belknap, by special licence similarly obtained, released the priory from the payment of two out of 22 marks rent forever, and agreed to acquit and defend the property in respect of the king and any others lords of the fee.

Robert de Belknap was seized of this rent for 20 marks in demesne as of fee until, by forfeiture of the said Robert on pretext of a judgement against him in the king's court held at Westminster on the morrow of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the eleventh year of the king's reign (3 February 1387/1388), when the said rent of 20 marks and all the lands and tenements which belonged to Robert de Belknap were seized and forfeit into the king's hands.

After that the king, by his letters patent, gave the rent of 20 marks to John Scarle and his heirs; he subsequently gave it to William Kanenade, Thomas Chiche of Balverle, Thomas Brockhull, Stephen de Betenham, Stephen Paytewyn and William Every and the heirs of William Makenade. After the death of Thomas Chiche, Thomas Brockfull, Stephen de Batenham, Stephen Paytewyn and William Every released all their right to the rent to William Makenade and his heirs. Later William Makenade gave it to Gilbert Manfeld, citizen of London, Thomas Brockhull, Stephen de Betenham and Stephen Paytewyn for the life of William Makenade and with reversion to himself and his heirs as the king understands.

Special licence to William Makenade to concede that after his death the rent of 20 marks shall remain to Rochester priory for the maintenance of one monk to celebrate divine services in the priory, and for other divine services to be performed annually by the Prior and convent and their successors for the souls of William Makenade, his parents and friends, and all the faithful departed according to an ordinance made for this purpose by William Makenade forever.

Special licence to the Prior and convent of Rochester that after the death of William Makenade they may forever take and keep the rent of 20 marks and, notwithstanding the statute of mortmain, the manor of Shawstead [cf. Sharsted] excepting those things already excepted which are held from the same manor by the king's consort.

The king forbade that William Makenade and his heirs and the Prior and convent and their successors should by reason of these premises, by interrupted, annoyed or molested in any way by himself, his heirs, justiciars, escheators, sheriffs, bailiffs or other officials or their heirs whatsoever saving only to the king and his heirs and the chief lords of the fee the services due and customary.

The king at Canterbury 29 May 1393.

Inspeximus of Letters Patent of KIng Richard II

Restatement of the proceedings as far as the second paragraph of DRc/T66/1 L above.

Confirmation of Robert de Beleknap's release to the Prior and convent and their successors forever from the payment of 2 of the 22 marks a year rent which they pay him for the property they hold of him. Agreement to acquit and defend the property in respect of the chief lords of the fee.

Repeat of the last paragraph of DRc/T66/1 l.

The king at Westminster [Middlesex] 1 December 1382.

Inspeximus of Letters Patent of King Richard II

With the assent of his Council, the king gave John Scarle a rent of 20 marks issuing out of the manor of Shawstead [cf. Sharsetd], half the manor of Lidsing [cf. Lydsing] and other lands and tenements in Chatham and Wouldham which belonged to Robert de Bealknap, kt. which he had and took from the Prior and convent of Rochester and which came into the king's hands by forfeit of the said Robert by virtue of a judgement against him in the last Parliament held at Westminster, Middlesex.

John Scarle and his assigns shall have the rent forever on payment of 200 marks at the receipt of the king's exchequer on terms which may be agreed between John Scarle and the treasurer.

So that if the annual rent of any part of it had to be recovered from John Scarle and his assigns by process of law without fraud of evil practice, the king wished that John Scarle, his heirs and assigns should be compensated by the king and his heirs to the value of the amount it happened to be necessary to recover.

The king at Westminster, Middlesex 5 August 1388.

Inspeximus of Letters Patent of King Richard II

Special licence to the Prior and convent of Rochester that they may acquire priories, manors, lands tenements, rents, services and knights fees with their appurtenances, advowsons of churches, both those which are being held for their own use as well as others, and other possessions of the abbies, priories and other foreign religious persons from the realm of France in the kingdom and in the king's hands by reason of the war between the English and the French [cf. France] or the schism of the French, or other lands, tenements, rents and advowsons of churches to the value of 100 marks a year for themselves and their successors forever.

The churches acquired from the possessions of aliens which are being held for their own use may be transferred in and to the Prior and convent of Rochester and their house as well as may be; otherwise the union or appropriation of those churches made to the abbots, priors or foreign religious persons shall be absolutely dissolved and they shall be newly appropriated, joined and incorporated to the Prior and convent of Rochester and their house for their own use forever to keep the king's obit after his death and the obit of Anne, late queen of England, decreased, each year, the statute of mortmain notwithstanding, or any other statute or ordinance to the contrary; and notwithstanding that the priories, manors, demesnes, lands, tenements, rents, services, fees, advowsons of churches and possessions of the aforesaid foreigners are in the king's hand by reason of the war of the schism of the French [cf. France], or are being held from the king in chief, or of the king's gift or by collation of his progenitors; and notwithstanding that they were given to the aforesaid abbots, priors or alien religious persons or their predecessors by the king's progenitors, to found or maintain chantries, hospitals, works of charity and for other purposes; notwithstanding any cause or material reason whatever which touches or may touch the king or his heirs in the future.

In the meantime, however, let it be ascertained by inquisitions taken in this behalf and returnable in the usual way into the king's chancery or his heirs' that the acquisition of these other lands, tenements, rents and advowsons may be effected without damage or prejudice to the king, his heirs or any other persons whatsoever.

The king at Margam Abbey (in Glamorganshire, Wales) 10 September 1394.

The inspeximus of King Edward IV was witnessed by the king at Westminster, Middlesex 12 November 1472.

The Letters Patent of King Henry VII were witnessed by the king at Westminster, Middlesex 19 April 1486.

There are no endorsements on this document but there are various hands and comments drawn or written in the margins of the first four of the five membranes drawing attention to particular points. This was probably done by Martin Cotes, Chapter Clerk 1547-1605.

At the base of the charter on the final membrane is written pro sex marcis solutis in Hanaperio and on the turned up edge
Examinatur per Johannem yong et ) clericos
Examinatur per Jacobum Whitstons ) clericos

The charter is also inscribed Whitstons indicating that he wrote it up.

The seal has gone but was originally attached to the document by means of a plait of green and white silk and two metal threads which is more or less entire. It extends 17 inches from the base of the document. The metal thread is of uneven width varying from 1-2 mm and has been would round a length of fine string before being plaited in.

The document is undecorated in any way although it was obviously intended that it should be as spaces have been left for the initial letter H and other letters along the top line. The word inspeximus has been enlarged at various points in the text for ease of finding the beginnings of the many charters inspected.

Latin.
Date: 1486 +
Quantity: 1 item


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Unfit For Production

Records of the Dean and Chapter of Rochester

Records of St. Andrew's Cathedral Priory, Rochester

The Prior's Book

This is apparently the sole register of St. Andrew's priory, Rochester to have survived. Certainly it is the only one now among the archives of that house. It covers the period 1475-1505 with one later addition of 1527 and in form resembles an episcopal register, though not in context. It is indeed a most curious jumble and is more of a precedent and memory book than a register.

The contents of the book are more or less chronological and include copies of confirmations [of charters], leases and bonds, citations, agreements, records of inquisitions affecting property, a public instrument relating to the transfer of a monk from Rochester to St. Giles Canwall, Leicestershire * which gives his oath of allegiance to the Prior of St. Giles in full, an indenture for the employment of a carpenter in the priory, a grant of wardship and marriage, the record and process of the case against Patrick Stanes, Vicar of the alter of St. Nicholas within the nave of Rochester priory church who unlawfully, as it was proved, witheld a pension of 40s. from the priory, lists of tithes for goods spiritual and temporal which the prior pays for property inside and outside the diocese of Rochester, appointments of a janitor and an auditor, and a composition relating to the repair of the chancel and side chapels of the church of All Saints, Hoo [i.e. Hoo Allhallows].

In addition to the above there are also copies of several fourteenth Century inquisitions ad quod damnum held before the King's Eschaetor of his deputy, and a copy of letters patent of King Edward III relating to an attempt to impede the prior's fishery on Haddenham manor in Buckinghamshire which was successfully overcome. There seems no evident reason why these particular inquisitions should have been included in this register. None is given. Nor does the will of Augustine Hankyns [cf. Hankin, Hankins] 1449 appear to have any connection with the priory. He may have been a supplier of goods to the house (since he was a member of the Grocers' Company) but there is no indication.

A fairly full summary has been made of the contents. The register is bound into the back of the first Dean and Chapter register, Registrum Primum which begins in 1538 [see also DRc/Elb1A as listed elsewhere]. It was so bound up probably in the early nineteenth century. The prior's register contains 20 folios and has been annotated throughout in a sixteenth century hand, and probably in 1576.

Registrum Willelmi Woode [cf. William Wood] Prioris ab Anno 1478 et Thome Bourne [cf. Thomas Bourne] Ad Annum 1504

Ff.l recto-verso
Reconfirmation of parish churches, pensions and tithes to Rochester priory by John [Russell], Bishop of Rochester after enquiry at his ordinary visitation 9 August 1478.

F.l verso
Confirmation 8 October 1475 John Bamme, esq. and William Gestewode to William, Prior of Rochester:

a tenement with buildings over and belonging to it lying between the cathedral burial ground on the east and south and Dodyngeshennlane on the west in Rochester which once belonged to William Rowe, clerk and which the donors and others had by gift of Edmund Chertesey, gentleman, deceased.

Ff.l verso-2 recto
Indenture for the employment of John Cokke [cf. Cock] as carpenter to Rochester priory 6 June 1479

No leave of absence from the priory except 14 days in harvest and to do repairs to his own house. No millwork below the watermark. Salary 26s.8d. a year payable quarterly, and a gown of yemen [cf. Yemen, Arabia] livery whenever the prior distributes livery. After he has been working 20 days in any quarter he shall be paid at the rate of 6d. a day for every complete day worked, over and above his salary of 26s.8d.

F.2 recto
Lease for 20 years 24 June 1479 Thomas Bourne, Prior of Rochester to Richard Neel of Leesston:

2 crofts called Court Crofts lying in Chatham parish on Shawstead [cf. Sharsted] manor.

Rent: 7s. Power of distraint for non-payment. See DRc/Elb1/f.5 recto

F.2 verso
Grant of Wardship and Marriage 13 November 1478. John [Russell], Bishop of Rochester, guardian of John Rykill, son and heir of Thomas Rykhill, late of Islingham [Frindsbury], Kent, gentlemen, deceased and the lands which belong to him to Thomas Seyntleger [cf. Saint Leger], kt., Henry Meerlande and Henry Santlowe, guardians of the said heir and lands:

Islingham manor and other lands, manors and advowsons in Kent and elsewhere in England which once belonged to Thomas Rykhill together with his wardship and marriage.

If John Rykill dies before he reaches the age of 21 leaving heirs who are minors, Thomas Seyntleger, Henry Merlande and Henry Santlowe shall have the wardship of their person and lands, and their marriage one after another until one of them reaches the age of 21.

Ff.2 verso-3 recto
Ratification of the above grant by Thomas [Bourne], Prior of Rochester 15 November 1478

Ff.3 recto-verso
Lease for 99 years 24 June 1479

Thomas [Bourne], Prior of Rochester to William Baker of Ipswich [Suffolk], notary public and Katherine, his wife:

16 x 10 feet of land between the burial ground of St. Lawrence church on the north and the Fishmarket on the south in Ipswich [Suffolk].

Rent: 6d. Power of distraint for non-payment. Expulsion for non-payment after one month. The lessees must leave 5 feet between their land and the burial ground for the bier for carrying bodies to and from the church.

F.3 verso
Letter Thomas [Bourne], Prior of Rochester to John Alcocke [cf. Alcock], Bishop of Worcester [formerly Bishop of Rochester]: Promise to remember him in all their masses, vigils, fasts and other spiritual works in return for all his kindness to Rochester Priory and the monks there 13 November 1479.

F.3v.
Letter Thomas [Bourne], Prior of Rochester to John Skowe, citizen and fishmonger of London and his wife: the same 13 November 1479.

Ff.3 verso-4 recto
Confirmation 3 December 1245 John Hardelle, senior of St. Margaret, Rochester to William Janys:

messuage and garden adjoining lying east of the main road in St. Margaret, Rochester.

F.4 recto
Confirmation 10 February 1465/1466 William Janys of St. Margaret, Rochester to John Cheryman of St. Margaret, Rochester and William Cotying of Rochester.

Same property.

Ff.4 recto-verso
Confirmation 8 May 1478 William Cotying, citizen of Rochester to Thomas [Bourne], Prior of Rochester

Same property as John Ceryman [cf. Cherryman] and he lately held it and had by gift and feoffment of William Janys.

F.4 verso
Quitclaim 12 July 1479 Stephen Jacob, Stephen Cherles and Benedict Houchyn to Henry Salman [cf. Salmon], son and heir of Stephen Salman [cf. Salmon] and William Salman [cf. Salmon], son and heir of Thomas Salman:

4 crofts of land called Pikeleys near Longdene in Frindsbury and Hoo St. Werburgh (16 acres)

F.5 recto
Confirmation 14 July 1479 Henry Salman [cf. Salmon], son and heir of Stephen Salman [cf. Salmon], late of Frindsbury and William Salman [cf. Salmon], son and heir of Thomas Salman [cf. Salmon] other son and heir of Stephen Salman [cf. Salmon] to John Hadde, William Robsard, William Bryn, John Hille [cf. Hill], Thomas Hadde, John Brown', Thomas Wod, T. Aston', Thomas Bourn' [cf. Bourne], John Pratte [cf. Pratt], Stephen Cherles [cf. Charles], John Ludesdon [cf. Luddesdown], Adam Saunders, Simon Bett, Robert Sym and John Clarke:

Same property

F.5 recto
lease for 20 years 24 June 1479 Thomas Bourn' [cf. Bourne], Prior of Rochester to Richard Neel of Leston [cf. Leesston]:

2 crofts called Court croftes in Chatham on Shawstead [cf. Sharsted] manor.

Rent: 7s. Power of distraint for non-payment. See DRc/Elb1/f.2 recto

Ff.5 recto-verso
Record and Process 1468

On the third day in Michaelmas 1468 Patrick Stanes, Vicar of St. Nicholas with Rochester priory was summonsed to reply to William Wood, Prior of Rochester concerning a plea that 100s was owing to the prior from an annual rent of 40s. The prior claimed that he was lawfully seized of the rent and that he and his predecessors had received it from the vicar and his predecessors until two and a half years since. Patrick Stanes claimed otherwise. Judgement, costs and damages were given to the prior. See also DRc/Elb1/ff.17 verso-19 recto

f.6 recto
Confirmation 22 February 1479

Thomas [Bourne], prior of Rochester to Katherine, Abbess of West Malling.

Annual rent of 40s. to pay £13 . 15s. 8d from Wouldham manor.

Grace: 1 month with power of distraint for non-payment.

F.6 recto
Public Instrument 18 June 1480

On 18 June 1480 before Thomas Bourne, Prior of Rochester and Thomas Hadde, notary public, William Lecester [cf. Leicester], a monk of Rochester humbly asked to be absolved from his obedience to god, the prior and the church at Rochester. The prior absolved him on condition that he pledged obedience to to Hugh Lempster, Prior of the monastery of St. Giles, Canwall [Leicestershire] in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield and agreed to abide by the rules of that foundation for life. This he did next day taking Prior Hugh's two hands between his own and swearing on his knees to be obedient.

F.6 recto
Notarial Instrument by Thomas Hadde that he was present in person and interested the proceedings [19 June 1480]

F.6.verso Composition 2 November 1480

Thomas [Bourne], Prior of Rochester and the convent, appropriators of the parish church of All Saints, Hoo and William Jenkyn [cf. Jenkin, Jenkins], church warden and the parishioners:

The appropriators and the parishioners disagreed about the rebuilding and repair of the walls of the chapels of St. Mary Magdalene and St. Nicholas the confessor situated on the north and south sides respectively of the chancel of the parish church. To settle the matter, the priory agreed to maintain the walls of the chancel and the parishioners the walls and guttering on the north and south (outside) walls. The parishioners were to find all the timber for the walls and gutters, everything pertaining to the work, and were to renew the leading where necessary at their own costs.

F.7 recto
Confirmation 12 February 1480/1481

Thomas [Bourne], Prior of Rochester and John Crepehegge of Darenth:

John Crepehegge the lessee shall pay the prior £4.6s ¾d. with suit of court and relief for messuages and 344 acres 1 rood 0 perches land in Darenth, which he holds of the priory as part of their manor of Darenth, and about which there have been constant disputes because of the various payments per acre and the customer of the manor. Power of distraint for non-payment.

F.7 verso
Agreement by Thomas, Prior of Rochester to pay Thomas [Bouchier], Archbishop of Canterbury £22. 6s. 8d. annual rent for three years out of Haddenham manor [in Buckinghamshire] (in answer to a request for £67 for his own use and for the church). Power of distraint for non-payment 15 January 1480/1481.

F.7 verso Bond in £100 to keep the covenants of the above agreement 16 January 1480/1481

F.8 recto
Boxley Tithes. Names of the fields belonging to Weavering manor and who take the tithes from each one. Examination of Nicholas Frogg [cf. Frog] of Maidstone, aged 76 in this connection.

F.8 recto-verso
Citation to the Prior and Convent to appear at the Episcopal visitation 8 October next. 26 September 1481

F.8 verso
Will of Augustine Haukyns [cf. Hawkins, Hawkyn, Hauekyn, Hauekyns, Haukyn] citizen and grocer of London 15 March 1449

F.9 recto
Bond in £40 15 September 1482

Bond between Thomas [Bourne], Prior of Rochester and Henry Wenworth, Kt. Henry Wenworth impounded two of the prior's horses and some of his goods in Chatham and extorted rent and services for lands and tenements which he claimed the prior held of him as of his lordship of Chatham. If they come to an agreement between themselves or by arbitration then the prior shall satisfy Henry Wenworth for the value of the park, his two horses, goods and chattles. If not the bond shall stand.

F.9 recto
Farms for Lands in Rochester and Strood: 4d. for land called Courthille leased to William Mongeham for 99 years; 20d for land in Rochester leased to William Gestwode for 30 years; and 12d for 2 pieces of land in Strood leased to Thomas Thowe, clerk for 99 years

F.9 recto
Confirmation c.1460 x c.1468

R. [cf. Richard] Prior of Rochester to Gilbert, kt, son of William de Helles, and Matilda, his wife:

2 weekly offices in Helles Chapel, [Darenth] for their souls and those of their ancestors and successors. See DRc/T102.

F.9 verso
Citation to elect proxies to attend Parliament at Westminster 15 November 1482.

F.9 verso-10 recto
Confirmation and Security 14 July 1344 Abbot of Lesnes to the Prior of Rochester:

Annual rent of £4.6s.8d. from the manors of Akholte [cf. Ackholt] and Lesnes for the support and maintenance of one secular priest to celebrate a daily mass in Rochester Cathedral for the soul of Hamo, Bishop of Rochester, his ancestors and successors, bishops of Rochester, for the souls of former Kings of England, archbishops of Canterbury and priors and brothers of Rochester priory for which concession they received 160 marks from Bishop Hamo for the use of their monastery. For the greater security of the annual rent all the fruits and issues of the church of Newington next Sittingbourne appropriated to lenses abbey were given as security

F.10 recto
Acknowledgement On 10 October 1482 Edward Wattone of Addington, gentleman, came before Thomas [Bourne], prior of Rochester and acknowledged that he owed the priory an annual rent of 5s. for lands called Monkedowne in Frindsbury (of which 4s. pertained to the sacrist's office and 12d to St. Mary's chapel) which he promised to pay in future.

F.10 verso
Letters patent relating to an Inquisition 20 July 1359

The Prior of Rochester complained that John de Molyns, the King's tenant of Cherdesse manor in Buckinghamshire which adjoined Haddenham manor, had erected weirs over the river as it ran through his manor to the annoyance and inconvenience of the prior. The sheriff was ordered to enquire into the complaint and to remove the nuisance if he found it to be true. John Hampeden [cf. Hampden] accordingly made return that John Molyns had erected five weirs across the river to the damage of the priory whole fishery was impeded and seriously inconvenienced and that he had ordered the weirs to be demolished.

F.10 verso-11 recto
Tithes for goods spiritual and temporal which the Prior of Rochester pass for property outside the diocese of Rochester (£30. os 8d_

F11.verso
Procuration 20 May 1484 Thomas [Bourne], Prior of Rochester to the Abbot of Lesness [cf. Lesnes]

Delegation to the abbot to collect the tenth in Dartford Deaney

F.12 recto Acknowledgement 1 April 1527

List of lands and tenements pertaining to the offices of cellarer, chancellor, sexton, almoner, farmerer, and the altars of St. Mary and St. Michael of which William Fresell, Prior of Rochester acknowledged William Warner, citizen of Rochester to be the lawful tenant.

F.112 verso-13 recto
Tithes of goods spiritual and temporal which the Prior of Rochester pays for property inside and outside the diocese of Rochester.

F.14 recto Collation 8 March 1484/1485

Richard Cooke [cf. Cook] collated to the office of Janitor

F.14 recto-verso Lease for 12 years 31 December 1480

Thomas [Bourne], Prior of Rochester to Robert Coke of St. Nicholas, Rochester, husbandman:

Land called Newelonde in Frindsbury

Rent: 11s Powers of distraint and expulsion for non-payment.

F.14 verso
Inquisition Wednesday in Pentecost at Chatham before Thomas Dorewicke, esq deputy eschaetor:

Statement on oath that Robert Belkeneppe [cf. Beleknap, Belknap, Beleknappe, Belknappe, Belcknappe], kt. was lately seized of Shawstead [cf. Sharsted] manor and confirmed it in free alms by royal licence to Rochester priory.

F.14 verso-15 recto Final Concord 23 June 1338

Walter Jurdan [cf. Jordan] and Thomas Jurdan [cf. Jordan], sons and heirs of John Jurdan [cf. Jordan] of Brenchley:

Partition of lands and rents, including property in Wouldham and Newelonde in Frindsbury, of their deceased father.

F.15 recto-verso
Inquisition Friday 13 October 1441 at Rochester before Robert Froggenhall [cf. Frognal, Frognall], eschaetor:

Statement on oath that Rochester priory was founded by Gundulf, Bishop of Rochester and continued in existence under his successors, bishops of Rochester, that the King had no part in its foundation; that William Wodyer and others held divers tenements in Rochester of the Cellarer's Court; that the prior was seized in right of the church for the whole time; that King Edward III had granted Robert Belkenap [cf. Belkeneppe, Beleknap, Belknap, Beleknappe, Belknappe, Belcknappe] special licence to assign his manor of Shawstead [cf. Sharsted], and lands in Chatham and Wouldham with half Lidsing [cf. Lydsing] manor to Rochester priory; that William [Tonebreg, Tonbridge], now Prior of Rochester was seized of St. Bartholomew's Hospital in Chatham [or Rochester] for the reception of poor men and lepers; and that the crown had never had anything to do with the foundations; and that the Prior and his predecessors were seized in right of the church of lands and tenements within the city of Rochester.

F.15 verso
Enquiry into the appropriation by Rochester priory of the churches of Boxley and Hartlip. Both churches were adjudged to the priory. 2 June 1485

F.15 verso
Bond in £22 12 August 1485

Thomas [Bourne], Prior of Rochester bound to John Warner, senior of London with power of distraint on Sutton rectory for non-payment.

F.16 recto Letter 11 March 1485/1486

Thomas [Bouchier], Archbishop of Canterbury to Henry [VII], King of England reporting the excommunications of William Farham, William Magnesden and John Bukmere of Boxley.

F.16 recto Lease for 60 years 20 September 1492 Thomas Bourne, Prior of Rochester to Richard Novyn of Strood:

Land 7 x 2 x 1½ roods in Bonecakes [cf. Boncakes] Lane in Strood lying between the road from Hoo [St. Werburgh or Hundred] to [West] Malling on the east and Bonecakes [cf. Boncakes] Lane on the north.

Rent: 6d. Powers of distraint and expulsion for non-payment.

F.16 verso
Bond in £80 1 September 1495 Thomas [Bourne?], Prior of Rochester bound to John Scowe, citizen and stockfishmonger of London

F.16 verso
Receipt 15 November 1486 Receipt for 8 marks 6s.8d. received from the Abbot of St. Radegund's Dover by Thomas [Bourne], Prior of Rochester for lands and tenements in Elham which the Abbot holds of the priory.

F.17 recto
Agreement and Security 1 September 1486

John Scowe, citizen and stockfishmonger of London supplied Rochester priory with salt fish and other merchandise to the value of £67. 3s 8d for which the priory had not paid. To secure payment of part of the sum Thomas [Bourne], Prior of Rochester [agreed?] with John Scowe to offer as a pledge a gold and silver processional cross with three pictures on it representing the virgin, Christ and St. John the apostle and evangelist weighing 70 ounces Troy. He also agreed to pay the debt in instalments.

FL17 verso-19 recto
Further record of the case against Patrick Stanes, clerk, vicar of St. Nicholas, Rochester. Michaelmas 1488.

F.19 recto
Power of attorney from William, Abbot of the exempt benedictine house of St. Albans, in the diocese of Lincoln appointing Thomas , [Bourne] prior of Rochester to act as his proxy at the Provincial Chapter at Northampton [Northamptonshire] as he has been ordered by the King [Richard III] to attend the investiture of his son Edward [Earl of York] as Prince of Wales. [c.1483]

F.19 recto
Part of a will. [No name given]

F.19 recto
Appointment of John Sedley of the King's Treasury and John Holt, his clerk as auditors to the priory. 20 March 1503/1504.

Ff.19 verso-20 roods
Lease for 20 years. 21 March 1491/1492 William [Bishop?], Prior of Rochester to William Waltham, Rector of Southflete [cf. Southfleet].

Corn tithes from fields in Southfleet known as Pole, Bradefeld and Wynden, and another field opposite the entrance to Pole Manor, as well as the three cops or seams that already pertain to the rector of Southfleet.

Rent: 8s. 4d. Power of distraint for non-payment with bond in 40s. as security.

F.20 verso
Names of fields in Boxley for which the Abbot and Convent of Boxley pay no tithes.

F. 20 verso Receipt. 12 October 1504

Receipt for 66s. 8d. annual rent received by William [Bishop], Prior of Rochester from John Islip, Abbot of St. Peter, Westminster [Middlesex] and the prior and convent there.

F.20 verso
Receipt. 15 October 1505

Receipt for the same.

* Medieval Religious Houses: England and Wales second edition, pp. 53 and 61, Knowles and Hadcock, mentions a priory of St. Giles, Canwell, Staffordshire, in the medieval diocese of Coventry and Lichfield.

File updated by Borough Archivist, Medway Council 2 March 2005.

Date: 1475-1527
Quantity: 1 volume [part], quarto: ff. 1 recto-20 verso
Result number 25 - Please quote Reference: DRc_Rochester_Priory_and_other_Religious_Houses_1080_1541/DRc_R1 on request slip.

Path: Ecclesiastical_Regular_and_Capitular_Foundations/ DRc_Rochester_Priory_and_other_Religious_Houses_1080_1541/ BA07_Registers_of_the_Cathedral_Priory_C12_C14/ DRc_R1.html

WITHDRAWN

The Textus Roffensis

(Textus de Ecclesia Roffensi per Ernulphum episcopum) * (The Book of the Church of Rochester through Bishop Ernulf)

12th. - 14th. Centuries

For the newly launched digital images of the Textus Roffensis, please follow this link (to Rochester Cathedral website)

 http://www.rochestercathedral.org/news/categories/cathedral-news/288-textus-roffensis-online

 

Introduction

The Textus Roffensis is more properly two distinct books, though written at about the same time, and largely by the same scribe, which were only bound together some time after 1300. The first part contains one of the most important of all surviving collections of Anglo-Saxon laws, from the conversion of King Aethelberht of Kent to the coronation charter of King Henry I of 1100.

The second part is the oldest and most precious of the cathedral registers. It can best be described as a memorandum book, created for ease of reference and security. Both parts were compiled in part from individual or single sheet original documents or exemplars, many now lost, in part from the collective memory of the cathedral community.

Dr. Patrick Wormald of Oxford is more explicit and humorous in his explanation of the purpose of the book. He says of the Textus Roffensis: it would have made an impressive weapon for a churchman seeking to defend the position of his English foundation against prowling Norman predators, compiled as it was soon after the Norman Conquest.

The compilation represents the first documentary evidence of the compromises made between the new Norman rulers and their indigenous English subjects, hinting at a convergence rather than a collision between the English language and English laws on the one hand and Romance laws and language on the other.

The book contains two foundation charters of Rochester Cathedral and Diocese of 604 (DRc/R1 f.119 recto - f.119 verso and DRc/R1 f.177 recto), two pre-Conquest and pre-Domesday Book lists of Kent parishes and copies of the earliest English law codes to survive (contained in part i of the book, i.e. the first of the two separate books prior to their being bound together)

The book would have been placed on the high altar in the presbytery, or stored very near by, not in the nave as some scholars have supposed. The first suggestion that it was known as a Textus comes from the enigmatic mid-thirteenth-century (Brett) or fourteenth century (Flight) note as quoted above *, which is long after its compilation. The term Textus signifies a book with an ornamented or decorated cover of the kind kept in the church rather than the cloister thus differentiating the volume from a liber de claustro Roffensi or book from the cloister of Rochester. The title is sometimes erroneously taken to mean a text concerning the church of Rochester.

It was highly unusual for a non-sacred book to be accorded such status, evidence of the politico-religious importance attached to its mainly secular content.

Compilation

The compilation dates from the episcopate of Ernulf of Bec (1115-1124) and more specifically from the period 1122-1123 (Hough, 2001) or 1123-1124 (Wormald, 2001). At that time there was little distinction between the possessions of the priory and the bishopric, and the bishop lived in the priory buildings with the monks. Ernulf’s involvement is commemorated on the first folio.

Both parts were written by a single scribe. Flight surmises it was the prior of the day, Ordwine. Wormald suggests he was a trusted servant of Bishop Ernulf (talk transcript, 2004). Whoever he was, he was no ordinary scribe and possessed advanced scholarly and editorial powers and was responsible for seeking out and ordering as well as transcribing the book’s contents. Similarly, A. Campbell has stated the texts……when compared with the single sheets, inspire considerable confidence in the care, honesty, and accuracy of the scribe (1973).

Physical description.

The volume now contains 235 vellum leaves.

The main hand in both parts is an early twelfth century bookhand but a number of leaves, particularly in the second part, have been replaced, and there are also additions made down to the mid-fourteenth century in a variety of later hands, which mostly imitate the work of the first scribe with more or less success. Some of the dominant capitals are coloured but on the whole very little colour has been used. There is one fully illuminated capital letter, marking the beginning of the second part on f.119r. After the two parts were brought together they were foliated throughout except for ff. 234v-235v in arabic numerals and thus must have been foliated after c.1300, see below.

Nothing is known of the original bindings of the two parts while separated, but the new binding of c.1300 comprised wooden boards with a leather covering. This wooden binding almost certainly survived until the early eighteenth century as it was noted by Dr. John Harris, Prebendary of Rochester, who borrowed it (presumably just before it was rebound in 1718) for his History of Kent published in 1719.

On 21 December 1708 the Chapter meeting ordered the Dean to take the book to London for binding following a request for the loan of it to Dr. Edward Elstub [cf. Elstob] on security of £200 (DRc AC/5 p.55 recto). It is not certain the book was bound on that occasion but at some stage between 1708 and 1712 it was lent to Elstub as on 25 June 1712 the Chapter ordered him to return it (DRc AC/5 p.95 recto). The book was rebound in 1718 along with the Customale Roffense (DRc/R2) but as both were bound in Russia leather and only the latter retains its Russia leather cover, the present binding of the Textus Roffensis must be later. However, comparison with the Customale Roffense provides an indication of the appearance of the Textus Roffensis between 1718 and c.1750. That the present covering is not Mrs. Jane Steel's of 1718 (see below) is also confirmed by the absence of corners itemised in her bill. We may surmise that as the binding of the Customale Roffense is a conventional board and leather binding, Steel's rebinding of the Textus Roffensis was given the same treatment and was the occasion on which the medieval wooden boards were dispensed with. Harris' published reference to the wooden boards in 1719 therefore post-dates the rebinding by Steele and refers to the binding of the book whilst in his possession c.1716.

The cover was repaired by Charles Lamacraft in 1937.

Custodial history of the book

William Lambard had access to the Textus in 1573 and annotated several folios.

The first recorded removal of the book from the cathedral’s custody occurred in c.1631 when it appears to have been lent to Sir Henry Spelman (c.1564-1641) the antiquary, in London, for scholarly research. Spelman seems to have employed Thomas Somer, a clerk to Edward Robinson, Clerk of the Court of Chancery to privately transcribe the volume’s contents. At any rate, on completion of the task, the Dean and Chapter arranged for John Lorkin (alias Larkin), Prebendary, to collect the volume from Somer who delivered the book to Lorkin’s lodgings in London but finding the prebendary absent, left it in the hands of the landlord’s wife. Here began a sorry train of events.

Before Lorkin could lay his hands on the volume, a fellow lodger, Dr. Thomas Leonard, a physician of Canterbury, purchased the volume from the landlord’s wife or their servant, probably for the sum of 5 shillings. It took a legal action in the Court of Chancery for Dr. Leonard to surrender the book back into the Dean and Chapter’s custody in 1633.

During Dr. Leonard’s unauthorised custody of the book it was transcribed by Sir Edward Dering whose copy was the basis of Thomas Hearne’s published transcription of 1720. Dering like Lambard made numerous notes in the margins.

In the late 1650s or early 1660s the book was borrowed by Sir Roger Twisden who returned it safely in 1663. Hasted (History of Kent, 1782) believed the Chancery suit to have occurred after the Restoration but would appear to have confused Twisden’s borrowing of the book with its earlier unlawful alienation by Dr. Leonard.

It appears likely the book was loaned to Dr. Edward Elstub in 1708 for transcription by him and the infant prodigy James Smith. It was in the hands of Francis Atterbury, bishop of Rochester in 1717 (DRc AC5/5 pt.ii p.68) and loaned to Dr. John Harris in 1716 (whose History of Kent was published in 1719) (see DRc AC5 pt.ii pp.15-16). It seems the chapter supported Harris in a tussle with the Dean for its possession (DRc AC/5 part ii p.15)

Sometime between 1708 and 1718 the volume was accidentally immersed in either the River Thames or River Medway while being transported to or from London, to or from either Elstub or Harris (Harris, according to Hasted, in which case c.1716-c.1718). The immersion resulted in the margins of the vellum pages being slightly shrunk and stained by a white crystalline deposit. That the damage was limited may have been because of tight brass clasps connecting the wooden boards. The shrinkage and staining were successfully treated by Lamacraft in 1937.

Hasted describes the events thus: Since which they have been again in great danger of being deprived of it; for Dr. [John] Harris [DD FRS], having borrowed it for the use of his intended history of this county, sent it up to London by Water [cf. Rivers Thames and Medway], and the vessel being by the badness of the weather overset, this Mss. lay for some hours under water before it was discovered, which has somewhat damaged it. If accurate, this event can be dated to c.1716-c.1718.

The book is noted as having been returned and presented to the Chapter on 7 July 1719 after being new bound. It is also apparent from this entry (DRc AC/5 pt.iii p.34) that the proper or normal storage place of the book was the chapter room. The rebinding referred to is almost certainly that of Mrs. Jane Steel, whose bill was settled on 15 July 1718 (DRc FTv/54/10). It is thus obvious the book was absent between 1718 and 1719 perhaps being used by another borrower, most likely the bishop who seems to have prompted its repair, being named on Steel's bill, but the point to note is that the rebinding could have been the result of the water damage which can thus be dated to c.1716-1718 perhaps whilst being returned by Dr. Harris. The book was rebound by Steel along with the Customale Roffense (DRc/R2)

The book was borrowed for one year by Edmund Barrell (variously prebendary, vice-dean and treasurer of the cathedral and vicar of Boxley) by authorisation of the chapter on 25 November 1719 (DRc AC/5 pt.iii p.40), returned on 12 December 1719 (DRc AC/5 pt.iii p.47) and borrowed again by him on 27 January 1719/1720 (DRc AC/5 pt.iii p.47).

The Textus Roffensis was transcribed and published by Thomas Hearne in 1720 from a copy in the Surrenden library (cf. Sir Edward Dering), but as there are no papers extant relative to the recovery of the register in the seventeenth century, it cannot be determined whether the original was ever part of the Surrenden library. The register was also used extensively by John Thorpe in his compilation of the Registrum Roffense in 1769.

David Wilkins had access to the book for his Leges Anglo-Saxonicae published in 1721 and in the 19th. century further work was undertaken on the book by Richard Price, Benjamin Thorpe and Felix Liebermann.

The book was disbound for photography for Sawyer’s facsimiles published in 1957 and 1962.

Conservation work was undertaken by James Wayre at Canterbury Cathedral Archives in 1996.  The book was also photographed in its entirety in black and white, the prints being lodged with Rochester Cathedral Library and the negatives with Canterbury Cathedral Archives.

The book was fully digitally photographed in high resolution and colour for Medway Council in 2004 for publication in the CityArk Imagebase (click view images button above) and the binding and thirty pages (p.iii-4 recto, 31 verso - 32 recto, 49 verso - 50 recto, 53 verso - 56 recto, 95 verso - 97 recto, 110 verso - 111 recto, 118 verso - 119 recto, 166 verso -167 recto, 176 verso - 177 recto and 220 verso - 221 recto) were scanned at the British Library on 19 September 2007 following its winning of first place in the Turning the Pages 2 competition for local hidden treasures to be included in the British Library's Turning the Pages web site for three years, published on 23 January 2008.

No cover to cover translation of the Textus Roffensis is known to exist.

Bad staining occurs at ff.126v-127r. This appears to have been caused subsequent to the book's immersion in the River Thames and pre-Sawyer as it appears in his facsimile.

The book was deposited by the Dean and Chapter of Rochester at Kent Archives Office in Maidstone in 1969. Prompted by the creation of the more local Rochester upon Medway City Archives Office in 1990 the cathedral archives including the Textus Roffensis were transferred to Strood in 1992. This office was managed by employees of Kent County Council until 1998 when management and custody passed from Kent County Council to the new Unitary Authority (i.e. County Borough) and Archives Authority, Medway Council.

The English Language

The book contains the putative first record of the English language, in the form of the Laws of Ethelbert of c.604 but see also the foundation charters also of 604. The Laws of Ethelbert begin:

Godes feoh and ciricean xii gylde. Biscopes feoh xi gylde. Preostes feoh ix gylde. Diacones feoh vi gylde. Cleroces feoh iii gylde. Ciric frith ii gylde

(The property of God and of the church, twelvefold; a bishop's property, elevenfold; a priest's property, ninefold; a deacon's property, sixfold; a clerk's property, threefold; churchfrith, twofold) (translation Fordham University).

The English used in the constituent Old English books is the Jutish dialect of Old English. The Textus is important because it preserves this rarer dialect of English, West Saxon becoming the predominant literary dialect of Old English. The modern English language is derived successively from the Mercian and East Midland dialects.

The book is thus an important record of an emerging language and the earliest recorded Germanic language after Gothic, which became extinct, and the fourth oldest recorded European language, excluding Gothic, after Greek, Latin and Irish.

The Old English texts contained in the Textus Roffensis also represent the creation of a new alphabet, possibly the first vernacular alphabet after Greek and Latin, combining a Celtic variety of Latin characters, two Germanic runes named thorn and win and a third new letter comprising a modified d called eth.

English Law

The Laws of Ethelbert and the other Kentish laws of the seventh and eighth centuries are the earliest of their kind to survive and are the earliest law codes to be recorded in the vernacular, as against the Latin usage of the Roman Empire.

Dr. Patrick Wormald states: Aethelbert’s code is best seen as the law of the Cantwara; a signal that they had joined Franks and Romans in the ranks of civilized because law-abiding peoples. Aethelbert’s laws were largely accepted laws but the later law codes preserved in the book show how English law had developed into innovatory law. Wormald also states: more than any other legal manuscript, it was both memorial to the past and instrument of its adaptation in a new world.

Anglo-Saxon Historical Research

The Textus Roffensis is a crucial primary source for the history of the Anglo-Saxon period, the more so because the scribe was scholarly and accurate in selecting and copying from his originals.

Wormald states the book matters crucially for the study of Anglo-Saxon charters…because the second part of the MS is a cartulary containing three dozen pre-conquest documents.

A source for Ancient History

The law codes may provide an insight into the Barbarian peoples of northern Europe at the height of the Roman Empire as their customary origins may pre-date the Germanic settlement of Britain and therefore provide glimpses of customs and rituals referred to by Roman writers which are not otherwise contemporarily or disinterestedly recorded. This particularly applies to feud and blood money or compensation in money or in kind.

A Medieval Renaissance

The scribe of the Textus Roffensis is a striking exponent of a distinctive form of Caroline miniscule handwriting or bookhand that was developed at Canterbury and Rochester around 1100 and which became influential nationally.

The later foliation of the book is an early example of the use in English documents of Arabic numerals, which made a first tentative appearance on any scale in France in the thirteenth-century, but only became widespread in the fifteenth century. The Arabic foliation cannot be earlier than c.1300 and probably dates from c.1400 (Liebermann).

The Textus Roffensis defines a unique moment in English history, in which a mixed community of Anglo-Saxons and incoming Normans assembled the materials of the past of the ancient church in which they all served, associated them with the whole history of Christendom, and deployed them in defence of a profound reform of the life of the cathedral. (In 1077 the original secular foundation had been converted into a Benedictine regular foundation.)

The compilation of ancient English documents forming part of the Textus Roffensis itself represents a new self-conscious attempt at recording an English heritage, after the Norman Conquest. The incomers needed an effective guide to the law of King Edward (i.e. King Edward the Confessor) as the Conqueror and King Henry his son promised to observe it; incomer and native alike needed all the resources of the book to preserve their ancient rights and recent acquisitions.

The book, chiefly in the form of the law codes, also records an important stage in nation-building and one that influenced the constitutions of England, Great Britain, the United Kingdom, the United States of America and many Commonwealth countries.

Wormald explains this more eloquently: there is an at least indirect connection between the fact that England is today the world’s oldest continuously functioning state and that English is its most widely spoken language. Its language and law are the most enduring marks of Englishness, its main claims to anyone else’s attention. The history of both begins with Aethelbert.

The book may thus be considered as evidence of a 12th. Century and 13th. Century European renaissance that some historians consider to have anticipated the better known 15th. Century renaissance. Aside from its liturgical value and the cartulary in Part II, it also serves the dual purpose of preserving the main corpus of pre-Conquest English law codes that would not otherwise have survived intact and as self-conscious evidence of statehood.

Examples of documents included in the Textus Roffensis

The laws of King Ethelbert of Kent c.604
(DRc/R1 f.1 recto - f.3 verso)

Ethelbert was born c.560 and ruled c580 x c590-616.

The first two lines Dis syndon da domas de aethelbirht cyning asette on agustinus daege (these are the dooms [or laws] that King Ethelbert set in Augustine's days) were composed and added at the time of the compilation of the Textus Roffensis 1123 x 1124 and constitute the first example of the scribe’s many rubrications throughout the text. The rubrication acts as a useful heading and is evidence of the scribe’s editorial control over the whole compilation.

The mid-13th. Century footnote Text[us] de ecc[lesi]a Roff[en]si p[er] Ernulfu[m] ep[iscopu]m (The Book of the Church of Rochester through Ernulf, Bishop), attributes the compilation to the orders of Bishop Ernulf of Rochester. This note has lent itself to the document’s name (see above).

The words of the first 5 lines Godes feoh and ciricean xii gylde. Biscopes feoh xi gylde. Preostes feoh ix gylde. Diacones feoh vi gylde. Cleroces feoh iii gylde. Ciric frith ii gylde (The property of God and of the church, twelvefold; a bishop's property, elevenfold; a priest's property, ninefold; a deacon's property, sixfold; a clerk's property, threefold; churchfrith, twofold) are putatively the earliest surviving words of the English language.

The marginal notes were made by William Lambard in 1573 and Sir Edward Dering in 1632.

The Laws of Aethelbert of Kent of c 604 were entered up 1123 x 1124, They are immediately preceded by notes on Old English characters made by Elizabeth Elstob in 1712 and followed by the Laws of Hlothere and Eadric of Kent 673-c685, also entered up 1123 x 1124.

List of the Archbishops of Canterbury
(DRc/R1 f.110 verso)

This list is naturally the first of the lists of bishops of English dioceses contained in the Textus Roffensis, Canterbury having precedence as the primatial see.

The list begins with Augustine (Augustinus), appointed to Canterbury in 597 and extends to Walter (Walterus) in 1314. However, the main scribe’s hand is evident only down to Ralph (Rodulfus) (succeeded 1114) after whose name other hands have added to the list. This possibly helps date the principal compilation of the Textus Roffensis or at any rate Part 2 to 1123 or just before 1123 when William de Corbeil succeeded. This evidence is by no means determinate however as the list of bishops of Rochester in the main hand extends only to Godwin II who died c.950 with the inference that the main scribe used his discretion in including recent or current archbishops and bishops.

List of the Bishops of Rochester
(DRc/R1 f.111 recto)

This list has pride of place among the lists of bishops of the dioceses following the list of archbishops of Canterbury, beginning with Justus in 604 and ending with Hamo of Hythe in 1316. However as with the Canterbury list, the list was compiled by the main scribe only down to Godwin II who died c.1050 after whose name other hands have added to the list.

These two lists have proved crucial in dating the book. Note additional archbishops and bishops' names in later hands.

Grant of land to St. Andrew’s church at Rochester 28 April 604
(DRc/R1 f.119 recto - f.119 verso)

This page marks the beginning of Part II of the Textus Roffensis, the cartulary of Rochester Priory.

The illumination comprises the illuminated letter R of Regnante formed out of an angel and winged dragon coloured green, lake and vermilion and introduces the charter of King Aethelbert (or Ethelbert) of Kent granting land in Rochester to Bishop Justus and the church of St. Andrew. The charter seems to assume the church already exists. It should be noted the church did not become a priory until Archbishop Lanfranc instituted monks of the Benedictine order here in 1083, at which time Bishop Gundulf began his rebuilding and endowment programme. Down to that time, the church had been a college of lay clerks.

The document is dated 28 April by reference to the imperial Julian Calendar and to 604 by reference to the Indiction. Calculation by indiction was first used in imperial documents, though different forms of it were also used in ecclesiastical documents for centuries. The year of the Incarnation is not given in the document, but Bede places the consecration of Bishop Justus and the foundation of the diocese in 604.

The rubrication or heading was added by the main scribe in the 1120s and the marginalia by Sir Edward Dering in 1632.

The charter breaks into Old English to describe the boundaries of land in the south-western corner of the city granted by the king to the church, the area of the Roman fortress and the later medieval castle:

Fram suthgeate west and langes wealles oth north lanan to straete and sra east fram straete oth dodding hyrnan on gean brad geat

(From South Gate in the west and along the walls to North Lane, to the Street, and so east from Street to Doddinghern Lane and then to Broad Gate).

If the boundary clause is indeed very ancient, this document contains the first record of placenames or street names in the English language and the earliest firmly dated record of the English language. The Street is Watling Street i.e. Rochester High Street; Doddinghern [Lane] is now Boley Hill (formerly King’s Head Lane), in Rochester, see Gordon Ward MD FSA's map in Archaeologia Cantiana LXII 1949 p.38.

However, the document is in part at least a later forgery in common with many charters of the Anglo-Saxon period and was devised to give legal basis to rights not otherwise recorded.

The document is immediately preceded by a note of an inquisition made in 1199 concerning the debts of Rochester Priory.

Grant of land to St. Andrew’s church at Rochester 604
(DRc/R1 f.177 recto)

This document, recording the principal gifts to the church from its foundation to the grant made by King Henry I at the consecration of the new cathedral in 1130, is one of the early additions to the book. The date given, 600, is not accepted by historians. Justus was sent to England by Pope Gregory in 601 and ordained bishop of Rochester in 604.

The area of land conveyed by King Ethelbert is described thus: Omnem terram quae est a medu waie usque ad [?] orientalem portum civitatis in australi parte (All the land which is on the southern side from the Mead Way as far as the east gate of the City).

The land in question is thus the land upon which the church was built, see Gordon Ward MD FSA's map in Archaeologia Cantiana LXII 1949 p.38.

It should be noted that the street named as Mead Way on Ward's map is erroneous. The Latin medu waie in the original document is certainly the River Medway, not an earlier name for Northgate, formerly Pump Lane, as suggested by Ward. Thus an earlier translation by R.C. Fowler OBE BA FSA is correct (Victoria County History of Kent, volume ii p. 121 1926)

The entry represents at least the collective memory of the community at Rochester by the mid-twelfth century; if there had ever been a charter to record this early grant, it appears to have been long lost.

Coronation Charter or Institutiones of King Henry I, 1100
(DRc/R1 ff. 96 recto-97 verso)

This is the earliest document of its kind to survive, a promise made by a new king faced by dangerous enemies that he would govern according to good law. Its importance was underlined when Sir William Blackstone published his famed work Commentaries on the Laws of England between 1765 and 1769.

A version of King Henry’s charter was certainly known to the opponents of King John in 1215, and provided a very general precedent for the demands which were met (at least briefly) in Magna Carta of 1215, by which for the first time a king was constrained to acknowledge that he too was bound by the laws which he enforced on his subjects. In Statutes of the Realm published in 1810, Henry’s charter was deemed to outrank Magna Carta in importance.

The Rochester version of the charter, contained in the Textus Roffensis, is the earliest of the numerous surviving copies; the form is broadly that which seems to have been known to the barons in the months before the grant of Magna Carta. John’s opponents seem to have used a version not dissimilar to that in the Textus, but almost certainly one they found in an early-thirteenth-century copy of the Leges Londinienses.

In the charter Henry declared he had been made king by the common consent of the barons; forbade evil customs introduced by William the Conqueror, his father, or William Rufus, his brother; made the church free; abolished abuses of feudal relief, marriage and wardship; upheld allegiance to the king irrespective of traditional feudal lordships; instituted a reform of the coinage; agreed justice would be administered to those who had made or kept bad money; authorised the bequeathing of personal estates by will; agreed men who suffered forfeiture were no longer to be at the king’s mercy; agreed in return for supplying men and horses for the defence of the realm, knights were to be allowed their demesne lands free of tax; agreed peace was to be kept; reinstated the laws of Edward the Confessor as amended by William the Conqueror; and asserted the forests were to remain as they had been under William the Conqueror, with the agreement of the barons.

The document was witnessed by Bishop Gundulf. It is immediately preceded in the book by Bequeathing Form.

Service of Bridgework: list of personages, parishes and manors liable to repair Rochester Bridge, early 11th. century
(DRc/R1 f.166 verso)

This document probably constitutes a description of liabilities for the repair of Rochester Bridge. It is useful as a physical description of the partly English, partly Roman bridge of the period prior to the erection of the later medieval bridge completed in about 1398. However it could also be read as specifications for a proposed new bridge.

The Bridgework list was probably compiled in the first half of the 11th. century. The Textus Roffensis also contains a Latin copy of the original, written by the main scribe at the same time as this transcription in the 1120s (DRc/R1 f.164 verso).

The document was no doubt included in the Textus Roffensis because of the obligations for repair placed on the bishop and his parishes. In this latter regard, historians have used the list as a source for the origins and development of Kent parishes, in conjunction with the slightly later Domesday Book of 1087.

The document begins with the scribe’s rubrication: This is thaere bricce geweorc on hrovecaestre (This is the Bridgework at Rochester) and continues from the original source, the first clause of which states:

Her syndon genamad tha land the man hi of scale weorcan; Aerest thaere burge biscop fehth on thone earm to wercene tha land peran and threo gyrda to pilliane and iii sylla to lycanne, thaet is of Borcstealle and of Cucclestane and of Frinondesbyrig and of Stoce

(Here are named the lands from which the labour is due. First the bishop of the city undertakes to construct the land pier on the [eastern] arm and to plank three rods and to set in place 3 beams, that is from Borstal, Cuxton, Frindsbury and Stoke.)

The document is preceded by an unruled later 12th. Century addition.

List of churches receiving Holy Chrism from St. Andrew’s Church c.1080
(DRc/R1 ff.220 verso – 222 recto)

Holy Chrism was consecrated oil used in the rite of baptism. It was an old custom for the mother church to distribute chrism oil to the subordinate churches of the bishopric at Easter for which a fee of either sixpence or nine pence was charged, known as the Chrism Fee.

The list therefore served as an accounting record of the Chrism fees due from each church.

The list is important as it comprises a list of parishes and chapels nearly contemporary with the Domesday Book of 1087 and may even have been in use pre-Conquest (1066).

Additionally, the list supplies information on chapels and manors and the development of parish areas. For example, in addition to an entry for Frindsbury Church, Strood, Islingham and Thorndun are recorded as chapels of Frindsbury. This indicates that St. Nicholas’ Church Strood was a daughter church of Frindsbury and that the parish of Strood was carved out of Frindsbury.

The list begins with the scribe’s rubrication De numero ecclesiaru[m] Rofensis ep[iscop]at[us] et de redditib[us] q[u]os sing[u]l[a]e reddu[n]t quando accipiu[n]t s[an]ctu[m] crisma a mat[re] eccl[esi]a ep[iscop]at[us] (Concerning the number of churches of the bishopric of Rochester and the payments which they each make when they received the holy chrism from the Episcopal mother church)

The parishes mentioned on the first page include Tonbridge (Tonebrigga), Yalding (Ealdinga), Brenchley (Braencesle), Horsmonden (Horsbundenne), Pembury (Peppingeberia), Wateringbury (Wotringaberia), Cowden (Cudena), Aylesford (Aeilesford), East Malling (Meallingis), Ryarsh (Reiersce), Chatham (Caetham), Cuxton (Cuclestena), Penshurst (Pennes hurst), Ightam (Ehteham) and Lewisham (Leueseham).

Synopsis of contents

Part 1 is preceded by various miscellaneous notes added by much later hands.

p.i recto memoranda and notes in early modern hands

p.i verso list of Old English characters

p.ii recto Latin inscription pertaining to book's return to custody following a law suit 1633

p.ii verso palimpsest

p.iii recto transcription by Dr. John Harris of inscription found on the medieval wooden cover of book, as above 1633

p.iii verso a list of Old English characters by Elizabeth Elstob entered up in 1712

Part 1: Quedam instituta de legibus regum Anglorum (Some enactments from the laws of the kings of the English) (DRc/R1 f.58 recto) [translation Flight]

i.e. legal texts, law codes and regnal lists stemming from the kingdoms of the English Heptarchy, England

ff.1 recto- 3 verso: Ethelbert [cf. Aethelbert] king of Kent [commencing Dis syndon da domas de aethelbirht cyning asette on agustinus daege (transliteration Morris/Sawyer) ( these are the dooms [or laws] that King Ethelbert fixed in Augustine's days) (translation Fordham University.)] It should be noted modern scholars (Hough, Richards and Wormald) suggest this heading to be a later rubrication prefaced by the scribe to the text of the original document from which he copied. (For a 35mm colour slide/transparency see collection M51)
ff.3 verso-5 recto: Hlothere [cf. Lother/Lothair] and Eadric [cf. Edric], kings of Kent
ff.5 recto-6 verso: Wihtred [cf. Wightred], king of Kent
f.7 recto-verso: Hadbot [cf. Hadbote/had; compensation for affront or injury to a person in holy orders, see The Oxford English Dictionary edited by J.A.H. Murray [etc.] 1970, Archives library]
ff.7 verso-8 verso: West Saxon (Wessex) regnal table i.e. list of kings of Wessex
ff.9 recto-31 verso: Alfred [cf. Aelfred] (ff.11 recto- 24 verso) and Ine (ff.24 verso-31 verso), kings of Wessex;
ff.31 verso-32 recto: be blaserum (About Arsonists) and Forfang [rescue of stolen money or reward for rescuing stolen money]
f.32 recto-verso: Ordeal (cf. Ordal)
f.32 verso: Walreaf (despoiling the dead) [cf. Wealreaf, Weilreif, Walaraupa, A Treatise of Gavelkind [etc.], William Somner, 1660]
ff.32 verso-37 recto: II King Athelstan [cf. Aethelstan]
ff.37 recto-38 recto: V King Athelstan [cf. Athelstan]
f.38 recto: IV King Athelstan [cf. Aethelstan]
f.38 recto: Pax [i.e. the king’s peace]
ff.38 verso-39 verso: Swerian [i.e. oath forms]
f.38 verso: f.39 verso: Mirca Laga (Of Mercian Law)
ff.40-41: Laws of Edward [cf. Eadward] the Elder, king of England and Guthrum (or Aethelstan/Athelstan), king of the Dane-Law +; after c.901;
ff.41 verso-42 recto: Wergeld the price set upon a man according to his rank, paid by way of compensation or fine in cases of homicide and certain other crimes to free the offender from further obligation or punishment ( The Oxford English Dictionary, q.v. ); ff.42 recto-43 recto: I King Edward
ff.43 recto-44 recto: II King Edward
ff.44 recto-45 recto: I King Edmund
ff.45 recto-46 recto: II King Edmund
ff.46 recto-47 recto: I King Ethelred
f.47 recto-verso: King William I, On Exculpation
ff.48 recto-49 verso: III King Ethelred
ff.49 verso-57 recto: Iudicia Dei I_III i.e. the judgment of God, comprising Exorcismus-aquae (f.49 verso), Exorcismus-ferri (f.53 verso) and Exorcismus-panis (ff.55 verso -56 recto) i.e. the ceremonies of ordeal by red-hot iron, boiling water, immersion in water or by barley bread and cheese
f.57 verso: Canute, king of England, Charter for Christ Church, Canterbury
ff.58 recto-80 recto: Instituta Cnuti, I II III
ff.80 recto-81 verso: III King William I, Ten Articles
ff.81 verso-87 recto: Exceptiones, ex decretis pontificum, quales accusatores
ff.88 recto-93 recto: VI King Athelstan
f.93 verso- 94 recto Northleoda laga (Of the North people's law)
ff.93 verso-94 recto: Wergeld
ff.94 verso-95 recto: On betrothal/wedding
f.95 recto: charm against theft
f.95 recto-verso: Bequeathing form
ff. 96 recto-97 verso: King Henry I; Institutiones henrici regis
ff.98 recto - 100 recto: Excommunication
f.101 recto-verso: West Saxon [i.e. Wessex] genealogy
ff. 102 recto-104 recto: English royal genealogies, Adam to Edward Ironside (f.101 recto), Northumbria (f.102 recto), Mercia (f.102 recto), Kent (f.103 recto), Wessex (f.103 verso)
ff. 105 recto-116 recto: lists of popes, Roman++ emperors f.107 verso), oriental patriarchs [i.e. of Jerusalem [Palestine/Israel] (f.107 verso), Alexandria [Egypt] (f.109 recto) and Antiocha/Antioch [Syria] (f.109 verso)), and of English archbishops and bishops (ff.110 verso-116 recto) (Canterbury f.110v., Rochester f.111r.)
f.116 verso: a list of popes, seven archangels
f.117 recto: concerning pope Celestine
f.118 verso: note of an inquisition made in 1199 concerning debts of Rochester Priory.

Part 2: Incipiunt privilegia aecclesiae sancti andreae hrofensis concessa a tempore ethilberhti regis, qui fide christiana a beato augustino suscepta, eandem ecclesiam construi fecit (Privileges granted to the church of Saint Andrew of Rochester, from the time of king Aethelbert onwards, who, converted to the Christian faith by Saint Augustine, caused this church to be built) (DRc/R1 f.119 recto) [translation Flight]

i.e. cartulary of Rochester Cathedral Priory

Part 2 begins with an illuminated letter R formed out of an angel and winged dragon coloured green, lake and vermilion.

ff.119 recto-222 recto: cartulary, here partly summarised:

[604]
King Aethelberht [cf. Ethelbert] I of Kent to St. Andrew's Priory, Rochester of land in south-western part of the city, f.119. For an image of folio 119 recto, please click here

738
King Eadberht [cf. Edbert, Eadbert] of Kent to St. Andrew's Priory, Rochester ff119-120

762 Actually 747
King Eardwulf of Kent to St. Andrew's Priory, Rochester f123

762 King Sigered of Kent to Bishop Eardwulf of Rochester ff122-123;

764
King Offa of Mercia to Bishop Eardwulf of Rochester ff123-125;

765
King Ecgberht [cf. Egbert] of Kent to Bishop Eardwulf of Rochester confirmed by Heaberht of Kent and Offa of Mercia ff126-127;

761 x 764
Sigered, king of half Kent to Bishop Eardwulf of Rochester; confirmed by Eanmund of Kent ff125-126

778
King Ecgberht [cf. Egbert] of Kent to Bishop Deora of Rochester ff129-130;

779
King Ecgberht [cf. Egbert] II of Kent to bishop Deora f130

781 Actually 860-866
King Aethelberht [cf. Ethelbert] of Wessex to Bishop Deora of Rochester ff130-131

788
King Offa of Mercia to St. Andrew's Priory and Bishopric of Rochester ff131-132;

789
King Offa of Mercia to Bishop Waermund of Rochester ff133-134

789
King Offa of Mercia to Bishop Waermund and church at Rochester ff132-133;

801
King Coenwulf of Mercia and Cuthred of Kent to Swithlun ff135-136

811
King Coenwulf of Mercia to Bishop Beornmod of Rochester ff136-137

823
King Ecgberht [cf. Egbert] of Wessex to St. Andrew's Priory, Rochester ff137-138

838
King Ecgberht [cf. Egbert] of Wessex to Bishop Beornmod of Rochester ff138-139

841
King Aethelwulf [cf. Ethelwulf] of Wessex to Bishop Beornmod of Rochester f139

855
King Aethelwulf [cf. Ethelwulf] of Wessex to his minister Dunn; with Dunn's will ff139-140

860 & 790; actually c.975
King Aethelberht [cf. Ethelbert] of Wessex to Bishop Waermund of Rochester ff134-135
868

King Aethelred [cf. Ethelred] I of Wessex to Cuthwulf, Bishop of Rochester ff140-141

880
King Aethelwulf [cf. Ethelwulf] of Wessex to St. Andrew's Priory and Bishop Swithwulf ff141-142
942x946

King Eadmund [cf. Edmund] I (of Wessex) to Bishop Burhic of Rochester ff143-144

955
King Eadgar [cf. Edgar] of Wessex to St. Andrew's Priory ff150v-152

995 King Aethelred [cf. Ethelred] II to see of Rochester ff152-155

998 King Aethelred [cf. Ethelred] II to see of Rochester ff156-159

1012
King Aethelred [cf. Ethelred] II to Bishop Godwine (cf. Godwin) of Rochester ff159-162

[ff.163-221: here are charters and other documents mainly post-Conquest

including ff164v-167r list of persons and parishes liable for the repair of Rochester Bridge (Old English), an account of a trial on Penenden Heath, ff.168 recto-170 verso (Latin) and a list of churches and chapels in the diocese of Rochester liable to pay Rochester Cathedral a fee for receiving Holy Chrism or consecrated oil at Easter ff.220v-222r (written c.1115 but thought to have been composed c.1089 and possibly in use pre-Conquest); also including charter of King Ethelbert to St. Andrew's Church of land in south-eastern part of city 600 [actually 604] [forged] (f.177 recto)

ff.222 recto-223 verso: list of offices, masses etc. that ought to be said for members of religious houses in confraternity with Rochester

ff.224 recto-229 verso, 230 recto: lists/catalogue/inventory of books in Rochester Cathedral Priory Library [f.228 recto, line 1, mentions the first part (i.e. the laws) of the present Textus Roffensis as above

ff.232 verso-235: assize of ward of King Edward III

a version of the Domesday account of the Rochester fief, ff.209 recto-210 recto;

benefactions, mainly royal, 8th. Century - King William II, ff.215 recto-216 recto;

a list of knights, f.217 recto;

confirmations of privileges by archbishops of Canterbury William [Corbois/Corbyl] and Theobald, ff.203 recto, 204 verso-222 recto;

a judgment by Imar of Tusculum [cf. Frascati, near Rome, Italy] ff.203 verso-204 recto;

copy of a bull of Pope Eugenius III of 1146, ff.206 recto-208 recto.]

The above list has been compiled from Sawyer (Part 1) pp.15-18 and from Liebermann Archaeologia Cantiana volume xxiii (1898) p.112.

[+ cf. Denmark; Northumbria, Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Rutland, Norfolk, Suffolk, Northamptonshire, Huntingdonshire, Cambridgeshire, Bedfordshire, Hertfordshire and Essex]
[++ cf. Rome, Italy]

Notes, general.

The original document (DRc/R1) is not produced. Instead, facsimiles of various kinds are made available, from which any reprographic work is undertaken. The following is a list of facsimile sources or secondary sources relating to the Textus Roffensis. This list is not intended to be exhaustive.

Microfilm MF411 (searchroom duplicate).

Microfilm copy also held by University Microfilms, Annarbor, Michigan, United States of America

The book was digitally photographed in high resolution colour on 2 June 2004 by Ian Booth of Medway City Estate . These images (jpegs) are available here on Cityark- see Imagebase.

Notes, bibliographical

Fordham University website translations of Old English Laws or Dooms click here

Printed book Textus Roffensis facsimile, edited by P. Sawyer 1957, 1962 2 volumes, i.e. Parts I & II, Local Studies collection, Medway Archives and Local Studies Centre ref. qROC283

Printed book Textus Roffensis edited by Thomas Hearne [q.v.], 1720, containing a transcription and translation of the original Anglo-Saxon text (DRc/R1 chapters 81-82) describing and concerning Rochester Bridge (at pp.379-383), Local Studies collection, Medway Archives and Local Studies Centre ref. ROC283Y

Printed book entitled An Historical Account of that Venerable Monument of Antiquity the Textus Roffensis; including Memoirs of the Learned Saxonists Mr. William Elstub and his sister [Elizabeth] by Samuel Pegge MA 1784 ref. qROC091 Pegge

Printed booklet entitled Rochester Cathedral Library: its Fortunes and Adventures through Nine Centuries W.H. Mackean, canon and librarian, 1953

The Local Studies Unit, Medway Archives and Local Studies Centre has a set of glass plate negatives (formerly held at the Guildhall Museum) comprising a partial copy of the Textus Roffensis, ref. Box 1B negatives 3097-3105 and Box 1D negatives 3110-3144

Printed book Textus Roffensis and Customale Roffensis by H. Pratt Boorman, Kent Life March 1974, Local Studies collection, Medway Archives and Local Studies Centre

Printed booklet entitled The First Code of English Law (originally a lecture given at Canterbury Cathedral Archives under the title King Aethelberht of the Kent-people and the First English Code of Law) by Dr. Patrick Wormald, published by the Canterbury Commemoration Society, 2005, Medway Archives and Local Studies Centre

Article entitled The Textus Roffensis in Chancery AD1633 contained in Archaeologia Cantiana XXX 1914 pp.225-232 by A.A. Arnold, 1913 Local Studies collection Medway Archives and Local Studies Centre

Printed book The Laws of the Earliest English Kings F.L. Attenborough, 1922

Printed book The Making of English Law: King Alfred to the Twelfth Century - Volume I Legislation and its Limits Patrick Wormald 2001

Printed book The Beginnings of English Law L. Oliver, 2002

Printed article The List of Saxon Churches in the Textus Roffensis by G. Ward MD FSA Archaeologia Cantiana volume XLIV pp.39-59 1932

Printed book The History of Kent by J. Harris (q.v.) 1719: containing also a transcription and translation from the Anglo-Saxon text describing and concerning Rochester Bridge (at pp.260-261), Local Studies collection, Medway Archives and Local Studies Centre, ref. Y942HAR

Printed book A perambulation of Kent [etc.] by William Lambarde, first published 1576; reprinted 1826. Also containing a transcription and translation of the Anglo-Saxon text describing and concerning Rochester Bridge, (at pp. 347-352). Local Studies collection, Medway Archives and Local Studies Centre, ref. Y942LAM;

Printed book Diocesan Histories: Rochester by Rev. A.I. Pearman MA 1897 (ROC283)

Printed book The Bishops and Monks of Rochester 1076-1214 by Colin Flight, no. vi in monograph series, Kent Archaeological Society, 1997, copy in local studies collections at this centre, ref. ROC283FLI. This book, chapter 2, pp.17 et seq. includes information on the title of the document and a description of the document's composition.

The Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England click here

Off-print of article entitled Palaeographical evidence for the compilation of Textus Roffensis by Dr. Carole A. Hough of the Department of English Language, Glasgow University, published in Scriptorium: international revue of manuscript studies Tome LV 2001,1 Archives Library OA/LIB/358

File updated by Borough Archivist, Medway Council 28 January 2008. Updated Nov 2014 by Archivist, Medway Council.


Date: 12th.-14th. centuries
Quantity: 1 volume 9 1/2" x 7" x 2 1/4" (240mm x 175mm x 55mm)
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